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Full text of "Plants of Mississippi : a list of flowering plants and ferns"



a;,M 







The New Yoil. Bij^acifcai Garden 



MISSISSIPPI 
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

E. N. LOWE, Director 



BULLETIN NO. 17 




PLANTS OF MISSISSIPPI 

A LIST OF FLOWERING 
PLANTS AND FERNS 



BY E. N. LOWE 
February, 1921 



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HEDERMAN BROS.. JACKSON. MISSISSIPPI 
PRINTERS. LITHOGRAPHERS. BINDERS 



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STATE GEOLOGICAL COMMISSION 

His Excellence Lee M. Russell Governor 

Hon. Dunbar Rowland Director, Dept. of Archives and History 

Hon. Jos. N. Powers Chancellor of State University 

Hon. D. C. Hull President A. & M. College 

HcHL W, F. Bond state Supt. of Eduo&tvbi^ 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STAFF 

E. N. Lowe Director 

P. F. Morse Assistant State Geologist 

Calvin S. Brown Archeologist 

E. M. Jones Soil Surveyor 

E. P. Lowe j. Assistant Soil Surveyor 

Miss Frances H. Walthall Secretary and Librarian 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

OFFICE OF STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 

Old Capitol, Jackson, Mississippi, 

February 7, 1921. 

To His Excellency, 

Go\^RNOR Lee M. Russell,, Chairman, arid Members of the 
Geological Commission. 

Gentlemen : 

In the course of my field work on the Geological Sum^ey for 
several years past, I have found it advisable to make copious 
notes on the native plants of the State, and to make large collec- 
tions of the Flowering Plants and Ferns. A close relationship 
was found to exist beiv»^een the geological formations, the soils 
derived from them, and the native plants growing upon those 
soils, so that it seems to me that a more critical study of our 
flora in connection with the geology and soils of the State was 
desirable. I therefore, employed Mr. Thomas L. Bailey, an ex- 
cellent field botanist, though yet an undergraduate student, to 
collect during his vacations more fully cf summer and early fall 
plants than I had been permitted to do while burdened with 
other duties. 

To embody in available form the result of the combined work 
of Mr. Bailey and myself, this Bulletin has been prepared by the 
writer. 

It is presented with the hope that it will prove of value to 
the citizens of the State, and to students of botanical science gen- 
erally. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. N. Lowe, Director. 



ERRATA 

Page 5 — In line 7 lor "seems" read "seemed." 

Page 11 — In line 6 for "Faralellism" read "Parallelism." 

Page 11 — In line 13 for "'Equisetaes" read "Equisetales." 

Page 11 — In line 7 from bottom for 'Bethulaceae read "Betulaceae." 

Page 14 — In line 21 from bottom for "Budbeckia" read "Rudbeckia." 

Page 17 — In line 9 from bottom for "casual" read "causal." 

Page 29 — In line 16 from bottom for "floral" read "flora." 

Page 39 — In line 3 from top for "rententive" read "retentive." 

Page 43 — Iia line 2 from the bottom l*or "are" read "as". 

Page 44 — 'In line 1 "otheca Lamarckii" should be transferred to the end cf line 

2 from the bottom of page 43. 
Page 53 — In line 22 from the top for "Zygademus" read "Zygadenus." 
Page 53 — In line 3 from bottom for "Quercus gertinata" read "Quercus gem- 

inata." 
Page 55 — In line 7 from top for "Sensuvium" read "Sesuvium." 
Page 55 — In line 11 from bottom for "Paralallism" read "Parallelism." 
Page 60 — Omit line 13 form the top. 
Page 60 — In line 14 for "Loss" read 'Loess." 

Page 60 — 1,3. line 14 above 'Loess bluffs" insert "Pteris serrulata L." 
Page 72 — In line 2 from bottom for "taedum" read "tardum." 
Page 76 — In line 1 for "liliiferum" read ciliiferum." 
Page 88 — In line 4 for "uncea" read "juncea." 
Page 90 — In litae 6 from bottom for "Etonia" read "Eatonia." 
Page 96 — In line 5 from bottom for "I'erax" read "ferox." 
Page 96 — In line 4 from bottom for "Operus" read "Cyperus." 
Page 121 — In line 13 from top for 'Ihexigona" read "hexagona." 
Page 127 — Ito line 6 from top for "Carya" read "Hicoria." 
Page 141 — In line 13 from bottom for "annus" read "annuus." 
Page 169 — In line 3 from top for "Melilotus" read "Trifolium." 
Page 176 — In li/ne 7 from bottom for "Apois apois" read "Apios apios." 
Page 180 — In line 5 from bottom for "teretris" read "terrestris." 
Page 222 — In line 10 from top insert above "Diospyros L." the following: 

"Ebenaceae. Ebony Family." 
Page 257 — In line 5 from top for "Honstonia rotundifolia Michx." read "Hous- 
tonia purp irea L.' 



PREFACE 

Molir's Plant Life of Alabama has been used as a basis for 
this Bulletin. The arrangement of Engler and Prantl, as 
adopted in that work has been closely followed here, and the 
nomenclature used by Mohr has been used in this list, except m 
a very few instances. No species has been included in the list 
unless it is found in our herbarium or is mentioned in the notes 
of the writer or of Mr. T. L. Bailey, or is credited to the Slate 
by some reputable author. A few species have been included on 
the authority of a partial list of plants found with the Hilgard 
Manuscripts, and presumably made by Dr. Hilgard, though no 
name was attached to the list. 

While work on collecting the state's native plants was in 
progress the Geological Survey received the gift of a valuable 
collection of about 450 species from Mr. Andrew Allison, an ex- 
eallent field botanist, who collected maiulj^ in two counties— - 
Tishomingo and Hancock. Unfortunately for botanical science, 
]Mr. xVllison left the state several years ago to take up mission- 
ary work in China. On his return, on vacation, in 1918, Mr. 
Allison very kindly presented to the Geological Survey Her- 
barium his beautiful collection, which is frequently referred to 
in the list as "Allison Herbarium" (abbreviated, "All. Herb.") 

Our list of grasses is taken almost entirely from the splen- 
did Tracy Collection in the Department of Botany of the Missis- 
sippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, free access to which 
was given through the courtesy of Professor J. M. Beal. 

During the summer months of 1914, 1915, and 1916, Mr. 
Thomas L. Bailey, an advanced student of the University of 
South Carolina, and an accomplished and enthusiastic field bota- 
nist, was employed by the Survey, and scoured the state from 
end to end, taking valuable notes, and making large collections, 
all of which are deposited with the Geological Survey. These 
collections, together with notes and colections made by the writer 
for the past several years, furnish the material for this Bulletin. 

We do not claim that a complete list is herewith furnished of 
the flowering plants and ferns of the state. Doubtless many 
species will be added as the list is known to be incomplete, and 



8 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

it is also probable that errors will be discovered by the critical 
botanist, but we felt that the mass of material brought together 
by our labors has added some new light on plant distribution in 
the central Gulf region, and therefore justifies publication. 

While in the list the newer terminology has been adhered to, 
in most instances the name given each species in the third edi- 
tion of Chapman's Flora has been included in parentheses as a 
synonymn, because, while it is desirable to encourage the use of 
the newer nomenclature, to most of the older botanists, includ- 
ing the writer, the nomenclature of Chapman is more familiar, 
and its insertion will facilitate reference. In fact, we are not sure 
that an occasional error has not crept into the list in the process 
of translation from the old to the new language, although special 
effort has been made to avoid them. 

Where our notes will permit we have preferred to refer the 
station of each species in the List to some definite locality. In 
many instances, however, the species is listed from some county. 
This is not entirely satisfactory, and in all future observations 
exact localities will be noted. The use of place names has neces- 
sitated the insertion of names of many places that would be diffi- 
cult to find on a map of the state. To facilitate the finding of 
these, an alphabetical list of the places, each referred to the 
county in which it occurs, has been appended at the end of this 
volume. 

Where the name of a collector, as Allison or Tracy, appears 
in parenthesis after a given locality, it means that the species 
under consideration was collected or noted at that locality by the 
botanist whose name is given. Where several localities are men- 
tioned in the distribution of a species, only the one immediately 
preceding the collector's name is his locality, the others being 
stations recorded by members of the Geological Survey Staff. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 9 

INDEX 

INTRODUCTORY: 

Plants 15 

Plants Universally Distributed 16 

Ecology 17 

Ecological Factors 18 

Water 18 

Hydrophytes 18 

Xerophytes 19 

Mesophytes 20 

Heat 20 

Life Zones 21 

Light 22 

Soil 23 

Woodland Formations 23 

Grassland Formations 23 

Desert Formations 23 

Biotic Factors 24 

Plants 24 

Animals 24 

Man 24 

Plant Succession 25 

TOPOGRAPHIC AND FLORISTIC REGIONS OF MISSISSIPPI 29 

General Considerations 29 

Tennessee River Hills 30 

Topography 30 

Soils 30 

Trees of the Uplands ^ 30 

Shrubs of the Uplands 31 

Herbs of the Uplands 31 

Herbs of the Rich Lower Slopes 31 

Herbs of Limestone Ledges 32 

Trees of the Lowlands 32 

Northeastern Prairie Belt 32 

Topography 32 

Colls 32 

Herbaceous Species of the Prairies proper 33 

Growth on the Higher Red Clay Soils 33 

Growth on the Sand Hill Soils 34 

Growth on the Stream Bottoms 34 

Pontotoc Ridge 35 

Topography 35 



ti, MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 



Soils 



35 



Tree Growth of Uplands 35 

Herbaceous Species of Uplands _ 36 

Herbaceous forms on Limestone Ledges 37 

Flatwoods ^^ 

Topography 37 

Soils 37 

Trees and Shrubs 37 

North Central Plateau 38 

Topography 38 

Soils, Upland 38 

Sandy Hills Soils 38 

Brown Loam Soils 39 

Tree Growth of Uplands 39 

Herbaceous Species of Uplands — in Open Woods 40 

Herbaceous Species of Uplands — in Open Land 40 

Soils, Lowland 41 

Lowland Trees 41 

Lowland Shrubs 41 

Lowland Herbs 41 

Marsh Herbaceous Species 42 

Loess, or Bluff Region 42 

Topography 42 

Soils 43 

Tree Growth of the Uplands 44 

Climbers and Shrubs of the Uplands 44 

Herbaceous Species of the Uplands 45 

Trees and Shrubs of the Lowlands 45 

Herbs of the Lowlands 45 

Yazoo Delta 46 

Topography 46 

Soils 46 

Trees and Shrubs 46 

Herbaceous Species 46 

Jackson Prairie Region 47 

Topography 47 

Soils 47 

Western Loam Section 47 

Typical Prairie Section 47 

Eastern Sandy Section 47 

Flora of the Prairies Proper 48 

Long Leaf Pine Region 49 

^ Topography and Extent 49 

Soils 49 

Trees of Uplands 50 

Herbaceous Species of Uplands 50 

Trees and Shrubs of Lowlands 51 

Coastal Pine Meadows 51 

Topography and Extent 49 

Soils 49 

Trees and Shrubs of Higher Areas 52 

Trees and Shrubs of Swamps and Marshes 52 

Herbaceous Species of Higher Areas 52 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS H 

Herbaceous Species of Low, Wet Areas 52 

Gulf Strand Flora 53 

Beach Dune Flora 54 

Sand Plain Flora 54 

Salt and Brackish Marsh Flora 55 

Paralellism of New Jersey Pine Barrens Flora and Northern 

Bog Flora with the Pine Meadows Flora of Mississippi 55 

Sketch Map of Topographic Regions 57 

PTERIDOPHYTA 59 

Filicales 59 

» Ophioglossaceae 59 

Poly podiaciae 59 

Equisetaes 63 

Equisetaceae 63 

Lycopodiales - 63 

Lycopodiaceao 63 

Selaginellaceae , g4 

SPERMATOPHYTA 64 

Gymnospermae 64 

Pinaceae 64 

Anigospermae 65 

Typhaceae 65 

Sparganiaceae 66 

Niadaceae 66 

Scheuchzeriaceae 66 

Alismaceae 66 

Poaceae 67 

Cyperaceae 96 

Palmaceae lOg 

Araceae 107 

Mayacaceae 108 

Xyridaceae 108 

Eriocaulonaceae 109 

Bromeliaceae 110 

Commelinaceae 110 

Pontedericeae 111 

Juncaceae 111 

Lilliaceae ; 113 

Smilacaceae 118 

Haempdoraceae 119 

Amaryllidaceae 119 

Dioscoraceae 121 

Iridaceae 121 

Burmanniaceae 123 

Orchidaceae 123 

!" aururaceae 126 

Juglandaceae 126 

Myricaceae 12g 

Salicaceae . 128 

Bethulaceae 129 

Fagaceae 130 

Ulmaceae • 133 

Moraceae 134 

Urticaceae 134 

Loranthaceae 135 

Santalaceae 135 



12 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Aristolochiaceae 136 

Polygonaceae 136 

Chenopodiaceae 138 

Amarantaceae 139 

Batidae 140 

Phytolaccaceae 140 

Nyctagnaceae 110 

Aizoaceae 140 

Portulacaceae 141 

Alsinaceae 141 

Nymphaeaceae 144 

Magnoliaceae 144 

Anonaceae 146 

Ranunculaceae 146 

Berberidaceae 150 

Menispermaceae 150 

Butneriaceae 150 

Lauraceae 151 

Papaveraceae 151 

Brassicaceae 152 

Capparidaceae 154 

Sarraceniaceae 155 

Droseraceae 155 

Podostemaceae 156 

Crassulaceae 156 

Saxifragraceae 156 

Hamamelidaceae 158 

Platanaceae 159 

Rosaceae 159 

Viciaceae 165 

Geraniaceae 179 

Oxalidaceae 179 

Linaceae 179 

Rutaceae 180 

Simarubaceae 180 

Zygophyllaceae », 180 

Meliaceae 181 

Polygalaceae 181 

Euphorbiaceae 184 

Callitrichaceae 187 

Empetraceae 187 

Buxaceae 187 

Anacardiaceae 187 

Cyrillaceae 188 

Ilicaceae 188 

Celastraceae 189 

Staphyleaceae 190 

Aceraceae 190 

Aesculaceae 191 

Sapindaceae 192 

Rhamnaceae 192 

Balsaminaceae 193 

Vitaceae 193 

Tiliaceae 194 

Malvaceae 195 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 13 

Theaceae 197 

Sterculiaceae 197 

Hypericaceae 197 

Cistaceae 200 

Violaceae 201 

Passifloraceae 203 

Cactaceae 204 

Thymeleaceae 204 

Lythraceae 204 

Melastomaceae 205 

Onagraceae 206 

Haloragidaceae 210 

Araliaceae -' 210 

Apiaceae 211 

Cornaceae 216 

Pyrolaceae 217 

Monotropaceae 217 

Ericaceae 217 



Vacciniaceae 
Primulaceae 



219 

220 

Plumbaginaceae 221 

Sapotaceae ^09 

Styracaceae ^^" 

Symplocaceae ^^^ 

Oleaceae ^^^ 

Loganiaceae 224 

Gentianaceae 2^^ 

Apocynaceae ^^^ 

Asclepiadaceae ^* ^^o 

Convolulaceae 2^^ 

Cuscutaceae 2o^ 

Polemoniaceae ^^^ 

Hydrophyllaceae 234 

Boraginaceae 235 

Verbenaceae ^^^ 

Nepetaceae ^^l 

Solanaceae ^^* 

Scrophulariaceae 245 

Pinguiculaceae 25^ 

Orobanchaceae 253 

Bignoniaceae ^^^ 

Acanthaceae 254 

Plantaginaceae 255 



Viburnaceae 



259 



Rubiaceae 256 

Valerianaceae 261 

Cucurbitaceae 261 

Campanulaceae 261 

Cichoriaceae 263 

Ambrosiaceae 266 

Carduaceae 267 



14 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Vernonia 267 

Stokesla 267 

Elephantopus 267 

Ageratum 268 

Eupatorlum 268 

Osmia ■ 270 

Willugitibaeya 270 

Kuhnia 270 

Lacinaria 270 

Trilisa 271 

Carphepliorus 272 

Grindelia 272 

Heterotheca 272 

Chrysopsis -- 272 

Chondrophora 273 

Brintonia 273 

Solidago 273 

Chrysoma 275 

Euthamia 275 

Sericocarpus — 276 

Boltonia 276 

Aster 276 

Erigeron 279 

Leptilon 279 

lonactls 280 

Baccharls 280 

Pluchea 280 

Antennaria 281 

Gnaphalium 281 

Silphlum 282 

Heliopsls 283 

Eclipta ^ 283 

Melanthera 283 

Spilanthes 283 

Budbeckia : 283 

Braunerla 284 

Tetragonotheca 284 

Borrichia 284 

Helianthus 285 

Verbeslna 286 

Actinomeris ^ 286 

Coreopsis ; 286 

Bidens 287 

Actiniospermum 288 

Marshallia _ 288 

Helenium 289 

Achillea 289 

Anthemis _. 289 

Chrysanthemum ~_~~ 290 



Erechtites 
Seiiecio 



290 
290 



Mesadenia 090 

Arctium _ _ __ _ _ 091 

Carduus ~~~ 291 

Thyrsaathema ___" ____" 292 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 15 



INTRODUCTORY. 

Plants.— The ordinary conception of a plant is that of a 
vegetable organism having three easily recognizable parts in- 
timately related and mutually dependent. These parts are : 
Ijeaf, Stem (a stalk or trunk), and Root. We visualize a plant 
as having these three parts, the leaf being a flattened green 
organ spread out in the light and air, the root, a fibrous or 
cylindrical branched organ reaching down into the soil, and 
the stem a more or less stout and often woody vertical shaft 
connecting the other two organs. 

The positions and relations of these three parts are not 
accidental. The leaf must be spread out in the air and light 
in order to perform its functions of elaborating food for growth 
and reproduction of the plant, this being done through the 
action of the sunlight upon the green coloring matter of the 
leaf. The root sinks into the soil, gaining a firm support for 
the rest of the plant, and at the same time, through its myriad 
ramifications reaches out and absorbs abundant moisture and 
plant food from the soil in which it is embedded. The stem, 
which in herbaceous species is often called the stalk, and in 
trees, the trunk, supports the leaves and lifts them into the 
air and light, at the same time connecting them directly with 
tbe root system through an intricate system of conducting 
vascular tissue, which makes up the whole of the stem of herba- 
ceous plants, and all except the heart wood and corky bark 
of trees. 

It will thus be seen how each part of the plant has its own 
specific work to perform, and how they are all interdependent 
and necessary to carry on the life of the plant. 

AVhile the picture drawn is that cf the normal plant with 
which we are familiar, the mass of plant life is so great and the 
conditions under which plants grow are so diverse, that there 
are more species which do not answer in full to this description 
than of those which do. INIany desert plants have no fimction- 
ing leaves, although in such cases some part of the stem per- 



16 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

forms leaf functions ; some water plants have no roots, but in 
these absorption of food-laden moisture takes place through 
the whole plant body immersed in water; a considerable num- 
ber of plants of otherwise high organization, called parasites, 
have adopted the stealthy habit of living entirely, or partly, 
upon the elaborated food drawn from other plants, and as a 
consequence they usually skulk in darkened places, like the 
assassins that they are, and hence are pale spectres that have 
lost their green tissue, through which other more normal spe- 
cies rejoice in the sunlight, and like diligent housewives, go 
about their legitimate duties. 

Aside from these abnormal developments of higher groups 
of plants to meet unusual conditions of living, there is a whole 
horde of lowly organized and imperfectly differentiated forms 
of plant life which have neither leaf, stem, nor root, properly 
so-called. These little forms are for the most part aquatic in 
habit, and by far the greater number are microscopic in size ; 
some of the higher groups, however, as the, liver-worts 
are larger and live attached to damp rocks, tree trunks or to 
wet soil. While in these low groups no specialization of parts 
corresponding to those of the higher plants has taken place, 
they perform all the functions of the higher plants, any part 
of the plant body being able to assume any function necessary 
to the plant economy — a condition which may be likened to 
the conditions of primitive human society, where each man 
was in turn his own butcher, carpenter, shoemaker, and barber. 

PlaJits Universally Distributed. — That plant life is very 
unequally distributed over the earth is a matter of common 
knowledge. The tropical forests of Brazil present a pro- 
nounced difference from the pampas of Argentina or the 
Great Plains of North America, and a still more striking con- 
trast to the barren wastes of the Sahara Desert. The great 
broad-leafed forests of temperate North America are succeeded 
to the north by the equally extensive Canadian and Hudsonian 
pine, fir, and spruce forests; which in their turn, as they ap- 
proach the pole, give way to the treeless, moss-covered Arctic 
tundra. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 1' 

While vegetation is not of equal vigor and variety in the 
frozen wastes surrounding the poles, it is not entirely absent. 
In spite of forbidding climatic conditions, lichens encrust the 
rock surfaces, and the snows are discolored by minute forms 
called algae. 

Temperature is but one of the important factors influenc- 
ing the distribution of plants. The Sahara Desert and the 
luxuriant jungles of Central America are both in the tropics, 
with approximately the same temperatures. The difference 
is due to absence of moisture in the Sahara and excess of rain- 
fall in Central America. Contrast the abundance and variety 
of vegetation in Mississippi with the arid conditions in Death 
Valley, California, both of which are in about the same latitude. 
The difference here is due to difference of rainfall in the two 
regions. Hence, we are impressed with the ^ery great import- 
ance of moisture as a factor in plant distribution. 

Then again, in Mississippi we have the extensive pine 
forests of the southern counties, the enormously valuable hard- 
wood forests of the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, and the broad, 
gently rolling treeless prairies of the northeastern counties. 
These are natural and marked distributional features of vegeta- 
tion in our own state. This distribution is not due to differ- 
ences of temperature or of rain-fall, but to differences of soil 
conditions. Hence, we have forced upon our notice the im- 
portance of soil conditions as a factor in plant distribution. 

Ecology. — This brings us to a consideration of Ecologv. 
Plants are not distributed by haphazard, but, as we have seen, 
certain casual factors operating upon them determine the 
limits and bounds of their distribution. These are called 
Ecological Factors, and Ecology may be called plant Sociology, 
01 the association together of plants of one or more species — 
often of many species — under conditions favoring their devel- 
opment forced upon them by the operation of all the ecological 
factors to which they are subjected. In other words, the sum 
of the ecological factors determines both the habitat and the 
associates of a plant. Groups of plants thus brought together 



18 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

constitute what are called plant Associations, Societies, and 
I''ormations. 

Ecological Fa;Ctors— These are the factors which operate 
— some one usually predominating — to bring plants together 
into groups living under similar conditions. Some of the most 
important of these factors will be briefly noticed. 

Water — The water relation of plants varies from complete 
submergence in some aquatic forms, through medium condi- 
tions of soil moisture suitable for the bulk of ordinal y vegeta- 
tion, to extreme desert conditions where the dearth of water 
precludes the existence of any except a scattered growth of 
specially organized land plants. According to the water rela- 
tion of plants, three great Vegetation Types are recognized : 
Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, and Mesophytes. 

Hydrophytes. — Plants of this group live under conditions 
of abundance of water. Water is undoubtedly one of the 
most important ecological factors, since plants in the active 
condition will die within a very short time if entirely deprived 
of it. To many plants, however, too much water is almost as 
detrimental as none at all. Even among hydrophytes the 
amount of exposure to vrater varies greatly. As already 
stated, some groups are completely submerged in w^ater, and all 
their life processes take place under water, except that in a few 
eases pollination of the flowers takes place upon the surface 
of the water. Submerged aquatics are usually specially organ- 
ized to suit the conditions under which they live. Roots may 
be entire-ly absent, as in free-floating algae ; or may serve 
merely ^ts holdfasts, for attachment, as in pond-weeds. The 
leaves are usually pale, and are either narrow and grass-like^ 
or finely divided into thread-like divisions. The stems show 
little supporting and conducting tissue, l)ut air cells are numer- 
ous, buoying up the stem in its watery medium. In all these 
modifications in which these aquatics differ from oidinary 
land plants we see exemplified the economy of nature, in the 
absence of organs not needed in a submerged aquatic but ne- 
cessary in a plant growing under ordinary conditions on land. 

Other groups of hydrophytes are partly submerged in 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 19 

water, in all degrees between almost total submergence, and 
eases where only the roots are covered with water oi are 
buried in a water-soaked soil. Water lilies illustrate the first 
condition ; swamp growth, as sedges, willows, and cypress re- 
present the second. 

Xerop'hytes. — These represent the other extreme in water 
relation of plants. Dry sand flats and sandy beaches, dry 
open x^l^iiif^, bare lock surfaces, and parched desert areas, all 
present unfavorable conditions for plant life. Besides lack of 
■SA ater in the soil, the air is parched and dry, and the sunlight 
is usually intense. Most of the common plants cannot live un- 
der these hard conditions, and those that do, acquire specially 
adapted structures to meet the conditions. In desert areas, 
characterized by minimum water and maximum heat, so hard 
becomes the struggle for preservation of the life both of the 
individual and of the species, that only a relatively few species 
can subsist, and these become the monstrosities of the vegetable 
kingdom ; as for instance, the Cactus group, the Yuccas and 
allies, the thorny acacias and greasewoods, and the weird Tum- 
boa of African deserts. 

The danger to desert plants are threefold: Too great 
loss of water from the plant tissues into the dry air; insuffi- 
cient absorption of moisture from the parched soil ; and des- 
truction by herbivorous animals. To meet the first of these 
dangers the leaves of the plant, through which transpiration 
of water takes place chiefly, are greatly reduced in size or 
are entirel.y absent, and the whole plant is very much compact- 
ed and covered with a thick cutinized epidermis. The second 
is met by developing an enlarged root system that penetrates 
deeply into the soil, assuming often enormous proportions. 
Also the plant body is often thick and fleshy with a great dev- 
elopment of water-storage tissue, which greedily absorbs mois- 
ture during a period of plenty to be used in sustaining the 
plant in time of drought. To escape destruction by desert 
herbivorous animals to whom these fleshy succulent bodies 
would be toothsome morsels, a spiny or thorny armature is 



JO MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

usually developed, but for which these plants would become 
rapidly exterminated. 

Mesophytes. — The usual, or what should be properly con- 
sidered, the normal conditions of plant life, are those of a 
moist air and soil which is appreciably moist, but not wet — 
water cannot be squeezed from it if taken into- the hand. Such 
are the normal condition all about us in Mississippi. The great 
mass of vegetable life grows' under these conditions, and the 
plants which constitute this mass are called Mesophytes, be- 
cause they live in relations to moisture intermediate between 
the two extremes of Hydrohpytes and Xerophytes. 

Examples of mesophytes are our familiar oaks, maples, 
beeches, and elms among trees, and the grasses and herba- 
ceous forms of the fields and woodlands. 

Heat. — In a large way Temperature is the most notable 
factor in distributing plant life over the earth. This is espe- 
cially observed in traveling from the tropics toward the poles. 
Temperature Life Zones run in broad belts around the earth 
roughly following parallels of latitude. Merriam has worked 
out the law controlling the limitation of these Life Zones. He 
has found that "plants and animals are limited in their north- 
ward distribution by the sum total of heat (above 6° C.) during 

the period of growth and reproduction, but they 

are limited in their southward distribution by the mean tem- 
perature of the hottest part of the year. "^ Conditions which 
noodify this temperature will cause the limits of the zone to 
move northward or southward according to circumstances, so 
that in fact the zonal limits are far from being east and west 
lines. 

Merriam^ has recognized the following life zones in North 
America : 

'Atkinson, George Francis, A Textbook of College Botany, 1905, 
p. 505. 

^Mariam, C. Hart, Life Zones and Crop Zones, Bull. No. 10, I^ 
3. Bilogical Survey. 



No. 17] 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



21 



Boreal Region- 



Arctic, or Arctic- Alpine Zone. 
Iludsonian Zone, 
Canadian Zone. 



Transition Zone 



jAlleghanian Area. 
(Arid Transition Area. 
^Pacific Coast Transi- 
) tion Area. 



.\ustral Region- 



[Upper Austral f Carolinian Area. 
\ Zone. i Upper Sonoran 

/ Area 



Lower Austral ( Austroriparian Area. 
^one. I Lower Sonoran Area. 



Tropical Region. 



Humid Tropical 
Arid Tropical 



In the Boreal Region the Arctic or Arctic-Alpine Zone 
embraces the treeless tundra from the northern limit of forests 
to the pole, and the crests of the highest mountain ranges in 
the United States. The Hudsonian Zone embraces the great 
northern evergreen forests of spruce, fir, birch, and aspen, ex- 
tending from Labrador to Alaska; the Canadian Zone, the 
more southern forests of spruce, fir, balsam, hemlock, and pine, 
with some oaks and other deciduous trees. The Southern limit 
of this zone extends into the northernmost parts of the United 
States. 



The Austral and Tropical Regions are divided into an 
eastern and a western area presenting distinct differences due 
to difference in rainfall. The Alleghanian Area of the Transi- 
tion Zone includes the great deciduous forest region of the 



22 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

northern United States east of the Mississippi River and the 
grassy plains of the west, and extends south to Virginia and 
the mountains of Georgia and Alabama, 

The Arid Transition Area extends westward from the 
great plains across the Great Basin of Colorado, Utah and 
Idaho. 

The Carolinian Area embraces the regions south of the 
AUeghanian down to the Coastal plain of the south Atlantic 
and Gulf Coast. The Upper Sonoran is the ax'id western ex- 
tension of the Carolinian. The Austroriparian embraces the 
narrow strip corresponding to the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal 
plain, westward to and beyond the Mississippi River into 
Louisiana and Texas to 98° of longitude. Its arid counterpart 
stretching through western Texas, New Mexico, and southern 
California, and southward into Mexico, is known as the Lower 
Sonoran Zone. 

The Tropical Region reaches the United States only in 
the lovrer part of the peninsular of Florida. 

All of !\IisfeJssippi is embraced within the Austroriparian 
Area of the Lower Austral Zone, though a number of species, 
which properly belong in the Carolinian Area, reach this state 
in its extreme northeast corner. 

Light. — Light affects plant life very materially. All 
green plants require light to enable them to manufacture plant 
tissue out of the inorganic substances which they absorb from 
the soil and air. But some need more light than others. 
Grasses as a group are light-loving plants, thriving best and 
forming a close, carpet-like growth in open treeless areas. In 
forested areas, the taller trees reach often to great height in 
order that their leafy canopy may receive sufficient light. 
1'his is especially noticed in growths of pine forests where the 
struggle for light among the individual trees causes many to 
become overtopped and suppressed, so that they die out, while 
those remaining develop tall trunks, lifting their crown of 
leaves to a proper degree of exposure to light. 

Most forests in Mississippi are mixed growth of a great 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 28 

variety of broad-leafed trees. The taller trees receive the 
direct light from above; beneath this canopy a lower tier of 
trees receive upon their foliage such light as sifts through 
the overlapping branches of their taller neighbors ; below 
tliese a still lover tier of small trees and shrubs receive upon 
their tender green foliage only the subdued light that reaches 
the interior of the forest. Barely rising above the ground in 
cool damp air, tender herbaceous plants and green velvety 
niosses subsist in the shadows of almost twilight depth. Each 
group occupies a position and sustains a relation to light and 
other factors best suited to its needs. Many of these plants 
of the deep shade, if placed in open, untempered light where 
glasses thrive best, would soon die. 

Many of the lower forms of plant life, as mushrooms, 
slime-moulds, and saprophytes among flowering plants, thrive 
best in dark places. 

Sol!. — In temperate North America the relative amount 
of annual rainfall has determined three great vegetation 
formations: (1) Woodland Formation; (2) Grassland Forma- 
tion; (3) Desert Formation. In all the eastern parts of the 
continent with a rainfall in excess of 20 inches per annum, 
woodland or forest growth of some kind, is the dominant 
feature ; in the region of the grasslands and plains west of the 
Mississippi, with a rainfall betvveen 20 and 10 inches per annum, 
cpen grasslands is the vegetational characteristic; in the arid 
regions still further west with a rainfall of 10 inches or less, 
Desert types of vegetation prevail and give character to the 
landscape. 

All the region east of the ^lississippi River, including 
^Mississippi, lies within a potential AVoodland Formation, and 
yet it is well known that even within our state we not only 
have woodlands of different kinds, but much of the state does 
not support a forest growth at all. Nothing is more familiar 
knowledge than that even within restricted areas vegetation 
will vary decidedly. A single pasture or meadow will show 
one plant assemblage in one part and a different one in an- 
other part ; a forest will show oaks and hickories in one part, 



24 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

beeches and maples in another, and perhaps pine in still an- 
other part. These differences are due to soil variation, which 
will be noticed more fully in the description of the vegeta- 
tional regions of Mississippi. "While so far as broad climatic 
influences are concerned, our whole state lies within a wood- 
land formation, diversity of soil conditions has greatly modi- 
fied the results, giving us a checkered and varied vegetation. 

Biotic Factors. — These include the influence of plants up- 
on the growth and distribution of other plants, either of the 
same species or of different species. Many more seeds begin 
growth than ever become mature plants; overcrowding brings 
about a contest among them for space and soil moisture, 
resulting in a weeding out of the weaker, and a ''sundval of 
the fittest." New species sometimes invade an area preoccu- 
pied by already established forms, and a struggle begins. If 
the invader is more virile and better adapted to the conditions, 
it eventually drives out the previously established forms. 

So also, animal influences are important in plant distribu- 
tion. Many seeds that would otherwise grow, are destroyed 
by squirrels, seed-eating birds, or by insects; or they may be 
attacked by moulds and their vitality destroyed; or the ma- 
ture plants may themselves be destroyed by parasitic fungi. 
On the other hand many seeds are distributed into new regions 
by birds, squirrels, or by other hairy animals, to the coats of 
which many fruits provided with booklets attach themselves, 
the cocclebur being a familiar example. 

Man, himself, is at present perhaps the most active factor 
in influencing plant distribution, especially of certain useful 
species. For his own use he has removed the forests from 
immense areas of the earth; he has started forest fires which 
have destroyed the native growth from other areas; he has 
cultivated the soil in every zone except the Polar Zou2S, ana 
so disturbed the natural balance of vegetable life that in 
the cultivated areas hosts of exotic weeds have come in and 
crowded out the native species, to say nothing of the pampered 
cultural forms, including cereals, corn, potatoes, fruits, tex- 
tile crops, and numerous others, which he maintains over vast 
areas of the best soils, to the exclusion of the native growth. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 25 

Plant Succession. — Plant Associations are not fixed but 
are constantly changing, because of the constant changes in 
their environmental conditions. The growth of an assemblage 
of plants, called an Association, adapted to a certain habitat 
and occupying a given area, may be removed by extraneous 
forces and their habitat profoundly changed. In such a case, 
v/hen the area comes to be reoccupied it will be by an entirely 
different assemblage. A familiar example is in the clearing 
of new lands for farm cultivation. In our state a rich meso- 
phytic upland forest of mixed broad-leafed trees may be re- 
moved from an area and the soil cultivated until the humus 
and other elements of fertility are reduced. If the area is 
then abandoned to nature it is a well-known fact that the 
same trees, shrubs and herbaceous vegetation that originally 
occupied it will not immediately repossess it. For the first 
two or three years the growth will be almost wholly weeds, 
none of which, perhaps, occupied the original woodland soil. 
After these, in our state, a scattered growth of persimmon 
sprouts is very liable to share the area with the weeds. Very 
soon, dense patches of seedling loblolly pine spring up, until 
often large areas are thickly covered with a growth of this 
pine. Little undergrowth exists beneath these young pine 
forests, but their needles and twigs, together with decaying 
trunks, gradually add humus to the soil. After the pine 
forests become tall and more light is admitted to the ground, 
young oaks, such as black jack and post oak, begin to invade 
the pines from the edges, and grow into fringing thickets, 
that gradually push into the pine forest. Any break in the 
phalanx of pines is at once occupied by these Xerophytic oaks, 
until we finally find the oaks replacing the pines. Once the 
oaks, with their accompanying thickets of undershrubs, oc- 
cupy a space, the pine seed is no longer able to germinate 
there, and so, eventually the pine forest becomes a mixed 
forest of pine and oak, and finally an oak forest with only an 
occasional pine, the pines being crowded out. The area once 
occupied by the black jack, post oak, and persimmon, the soil 
becomes rapidly enriched, and their occupation is shared by 
all the more mesophytic oaks, elms, hickories and the great 
horde of forms that originally occupied the area. 



26 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Such a progressive and orderly series of changes is called 
a Forest Succession. But successions are not limited to forests, 
and may take place under very diverse conditions. One of the 
most interesting successions to observe is that ivhich takes 
place in a filling lake, the different plant associations or for- 
mations following each other in successive zones from the 
edges to the centre of the lake basin. In clear lakes the central 
deep waters are occupied by floating aquatics, such as pond- 
weeds ; surrounding this central deep, rooted in somewhat 
shallower water, with their leaves floating upon the surface, 
pond lilies and water-shield form a distinct zone ; in still shal- 
loAver water surrounding the lily zone, is a zone of bulrushes ; 
beyond these in water but a few inches deep, is a zone of the 
tall cattail flag; in the oozy, muddy edges forming a fringe 
all around the pond, is a zone of sedges and coarse grasses ; in 
the damp rich soil beyond the water's edge, up the slopes, 
mesophytic herbaceous fl'owering plants occupy the ground, 
these followed in turn on higher ground by shrubs and trees 
oi the surrounding lands. 

As the lake slowly fills by sedimentation, and the addition 
of vegetable matter from the zonal growths, these associations 
gradually encroach upon the lake, the pondweed association 
disappearing firsi, 1 eing repla '(>d 'ty the lily and water-sbield 
formation; these as the shallowing goes on, are gradually 
crowded out by the next zone; and so on through the series 
of changes, until the lake is gradually obliterated, and the 
mesophytic vegetation of the adjacent lands occupies its site. 

In the above examples of successions, the first shows a 
progressive succ*ession from comparatively xerophytic condi- 
tions to mesophytic conditions, since a pine forest is a xerophy- 
tic growth and a mixed forest of oak, hickory and other hard- 
Vv'ood tree and shrubs is distinctly mesophytic. 

In the second example, that seen in the filling lake, the 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 27 

succession is from extreme hyrophytic conditions to mesophytic. 
Succession may thus progress along two lines, frcm liydro- 
piiyte societies on the one hand, and xerophyte societies on the 
other, in either case tending toward mesophyte societies. Un- 
disturbed successions tend always toward mesophytic condi- 
tions, and generally terminate in the most mesophytic plant 
associations permitted by climate. These associations are 
called climax associations, and become static — no further 
change being possible, except through changes in the factors 
that influence vegetation. 



TOPOGRAPHIC AND FLORISTIC REGIONS OP 
MISSISSIPPI. 

General Considerations. — The surface of Mississippi pres- 
ents considerable diversity both in elevation and in character 
of soil. The greatest elevation known in the state, in the ex- 
treme northeastern part, is about 800 feet above sea level, 
while a fringe of flat lands five to twenty-five miles wide border*" 
ing the Gulf, is only a few feet above tide water. While this 
difi'erence in elevation is not considered important as a climatic 
factor in the state, it undoubtedly has an appreciable effect 
upon plant distribution, but the extent of this effect has not yet 
been ascertained. 

The north and south length of the state is somewhat more 
than 300 miles, or nearly five degrees of latitude. This is suffi- 
cient to produce a noticeable difference between the flora of the 
northernmost parts of the state and those parts bordering the 
Gulf; but when are added to this factor of climatic difference 
the ameliorating effect of the Gulf in the southern counties, and 
the greater elevation in the northern, we are prepared to expect 
important floral differences. Comparison of the floral of the 
Tennessee River region vnth that of the Gulf region of the state 
reveals a marked dissimilarity. Yet this dissimilarity is due 
very largely to soil differences and other factors as well as tc 
latitude and altitude. 

Topographically and geologically Mississippi has been 
divided into ten more or less distinctly marked regions, and in 
a previous publication (1)1 have regarded these as regions of 
plant distribution. Geological structure has such a direct in- 
fluence upon topography and soil, which in turn distinctly in- 
fluence the distribution of plant species, that the regions given 
below (See sketch map), will be accepted here to represent the 
floristic regions of the state. As has already been said, the 
whole state, excepting possibly a small area in the northeast- 
ern corner, lies in the Austroriparian Area ; hence the divisions 
given are not major in importance, but are local and subor- 



(1) Miss. Geol. Surv., Bulletin No. 11, "Forest Conditions of Mis- 
•Ippi," 1913. Notes on Flora by E. N. Lowe, p. 138. 



30 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

dinate divisions ^vithin the .'.i:r:troriparian Area, based mainly 
upon soil differences. 

The regions recognized are the following: 1, Tennesse3 
River Hills; 2, Northei...cCiii Prairie Belt; 3, Pontotoc Ridge; 
4, Flatwoods; 5, North Central Plateau; 6, Jackson Prairie 
Belt; 7, Loess or Bluff Hills; 8, Yazoo-Mississippi Delta; 9, 
Long Leaf Pine Belt ; 10, Coastal Pine Meadows. 

Tennesee River Hills.— Consulting the accompanying 
sketch map, it will be seen that in the extreme northeast corner 
of the state a small narrow division, embraced mostly in four 
counties, is marked off and called the Northeastern or Tennes- 
see River Hills. The area is one of high, broken topography — 
the highest point being 800 feet above sea level. This was 
originally a plateau lifted upon the southern flank of the great 
Appalachian fold, and sloping gently toward the south, but its 
surface is now much cut up by erosion into steep hills and 
ridges. The steep slopes and cliffs bordering the valley of the 
Tennessee River and its tributaries for a few miles south of the 
river, exhibit everywhere the outcropping limestones, shales 
and chert beds of the Carboniferous formations, from 50 to 75 
feet of the tops of the hills and ridges being capped by Creta- 
ceous gravel deposits. Farther south the gravel deposits are 
largely covered by sandy soils of Cretaceous age, the old Car- 
boniferous rocks rising to the surface here and there along the 
larger streams. The soils of this region, as would be expected^ 
are light, sandy, and infertile, except in the stream bottoms. 
This region in topography and geology represents a transition 
from the old Appalachian uplift to the Coastal Plain ; we would 
therefore expect to find a similar transitional character in the 
flora of the region, and such is found to be the case. 

The hills and slopes of this region were originally clothed 
with forests, and in the more broken parts still remain in forest, 
though the large timber has been mostly removed. The most 
abundant trees of the hills are short-leaf yellow pine and loblol- 
ly pine, much of the latter in thick stands of second grovrth. 
Mixed with these, and especially on the lower slopes of the 
ridges are various species of oak, black jack, post oak, Spanish 
oak, and white oak. A common oak on the cherty and gravel- 



No. 17] 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



ly hills is the chestnut or mountain oak (Quercus prinus,) and 
on the rocky ledges along Bear Creek the red oak, (Quercus 
rubra) is very common. Chestnut tan-bark oak (Quercus velu- 
tina), dogwood and hickory are fairly common on the uplands. 
Down on the limestone slopes occur chinquapin oak (Quer- 
cus acuminata), mulberry, butternut, yellow poplar, magnolia 
(Magnolia acuminata), and occasionally black walnut. Scrub 
pine (Pinus Virginiana) is found on the high cherty hills near 
the mouth of Bear Creek. 

Common shrubs on the upland slopes are several species 
of the Heath family — the dwarf inedible deerberry, and other 
species of vaccinium; the hazle nut (Corylus Americana), the 
brilliantly colored mountain laurel and bush honeysuckle, Avitch 
hazle, trailing arbutus, the sweet-smelling calycanthus and the 
mountain holly; and on the rich lower shaded slopes the wahoo 
(Euonjnnus atropurpureus). 

Numerous herbaceous forms common under the dry upland 
woods, are the following : 
Plypoxis erecta 
Hieraeium seabrum 
Fragaria Virginica 
Iianuneulus fasieularis 
Viola pedata 
Phlox pilosa 



Lithospermum hirtum 
Viola palmata 
Silene stellata 
Delphinium virescens 
Silene Virginica 
Houstonia cerulea. 



Many interesting forms occupy the rich shaded soil on the 
lower limestone slopes, such are : 



Chimaphila maculata 
Hepatica triloba 
Asarum Canadense 
Trillium recurvatum 
Solea concolor 
Pachysandra proeumbens 
Zanthorhiza apiifolia 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Thalietrum purpurascens 
Cheilanthes lanosa 
Cystopteris fragilis 



Viola pubescens 
Hepatica acutiloba 
Trillium grandiflorum 
Botrychium ternatum 
i\iiemonella thalictroides 
Oenothera linifolia 
Aetaea alba 

Porteranthus stipulatus 
Phlox reptans 

Symphoricarpus symphoricar- 
pus. 



32 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Clinging to limestone kd-:s are the following: 
Saxifraga Virgiiiiensis Camptosorus rhizophyllus 

Heuchera villosa Asplenium angustifolium 

Heuchera Americana Cardamine Pennsylvanica 

Sedum ternatum Iris cristata. 

In the larger river bottoms exist remnants of what were 
once a good growth of white, water, and willow oaks, basket 
oak, sycamore, beech, river maple, black gum, sweet gum, and 
cyprses. Hackberry, ash, redbud, great-leaved magnolia, sil- 
ver-bell, storax, paw-paw, and red birch are less useful, but 
equally handsome species. 

An inspection of this list shows a considerable number of 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species that are distinctly of 
Appalachian distribution, most of which are not distributed 
in the state south of this region. A few are found also on Pon- 
totoc Ridge, and occasionally in the northernmost tier of coun- 
ties to the westward. 

Northeastern Prairie Belt. — The boundaries of this region 
and its relationship to other divisions can best be understood 
by reference to the sketch map referred to above. 

The region has a gently rolling surface, and was originally 
prairies, having only here and there scattered patches of trees, 
except on the stream bottoms, which supported heavy growths 
cf timber. This Prairie Belt is now largely in cultiva- 
tion, but some timber remains in the bottoms. Within the last 
several years lands formerly in cultivation and now thrown 
out, show a strong tendency to grow up in trees, in some places 
the old field pine, in others thickets of shrubby oaks. 

The characteristic soil of the prairies, which is residual 
from the Cretaceous limestone, is a heavy, tenaceous, calcareous 
loamy clay, dark gray when dry, but almost black when wet. 
In much of the region a yellowish-brown loam soil prevails. 
Ty^ia is a lighter soil than the typical prairie soil, less fertile, and 
usually supports a tree growth chiefly of post oak, black jack, 
and Spanish oak. The dark soil is the typical soil of the region 
and is naturally devoid of trees, except scattered clumps of 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS ^2 

crab apple, hackberry, and red cedar, with deciduous holly and 
lioney locust in low depressions. 

On the open prairies characteristic and showy species of 
herbaceous plants are the following : 

Coreopsis lanceolata Coreopsis grandiflora 

Silphiuiii laeiniatuni Silphium terebinthinaceum 

JMellilotus alba Harmannnia speciosa 

Lythrum alatuni Cacalia tuberosa 

Oenothera triloba xVsclepiodcra viridis 

Asclepias tuberosa Asclepias verticillata 

Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia laciniata 

Sisyrinchium albidum Liatris graminifolia 

Petalostemon carneus Petalostemon eorymbosus 
Otophylla Michauxii, 

Otophylla has been found in the priaries near Seooba, 
where it is frequent. Oenothera tribola, with large handsome 
lemon-colored flowers, is common around Okolona, especially 
m open lowland pastures along creeks, 

^lost of the others mentioned in the above list are very 
characteristic prairie species and widely distributed over the 
limestone soils. Hartmannia often occurs thickly covering 
areas that are acres in extent, and in the spring the large pink- 
ish flowers densely massed form a handsome and striking cover- 
ing to the gently undulating prairie surface. 

On the lighter and usually higher reddish soil areas which 
dot the prairie surface like islands, an entirely difi'erent assem- 
blage occurs. This soil is not so rich in plant food as the black 
soils, lime especially being in much smaller proportions. These 
areas support a rather dwarfish growth of a few species of 
trees, chiefly oaks, the commonest being : 

Quercus minor Hicoria Alba 

Quercus Marilandica Diospyros Virginiana 

Quercus digitata Pinus echinata 

Quercus velutina Prunus serotina 
Quercus Durandi 



34 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Characteristic herbaceous species associated with these 



are: 

Rosa humilis 
Phlox pilosa 
Tradescantia Virginiea 
Psoralea melilotoides 
Te phrosia Virginiana 
Spigelia Marilandica 



Plantago aristata (open 

ground) 
Verbena hastata 
Oenothera sinuata 
Apocynum cannabinum. 



The red sandy hills found occasionally in the prairie region, 
present still another assemblage of plants, the group as a 
whole resembling very closely the flora of the sandy loam 
regions of the North Central Plateau. The characteristic trees 
and shrubs are the following: 



Liquidamber styraeiflua 
D^ospyros virginiana 
Sassafras officinale 
Ulmus alata 
Rhus glabra 



Rhus typhina 
C^ueii'CLis Mamlandica 
Vaccinium arborem 
Tecoma radicans 
Vitis rotundifolia 



Hardly less characteristic is the herbaceous growth: 



Ceanothus Americana 
Pentstemon laevigatus 
Phox pilosa 
Specularia perfoliata 
Opuntia sp. 
Aster paludosus 



- Trifolium procumbens 
Krigia Virginiea 
Plantago aristata 
Gnaphalium purpureum 
Shrankia sp. 
Stvlosanthes elatior 



The soils on the stream bottoms are generally heavy and 
rich, with considerable lime. The common trees and shrubs 
are: 



Quercus velutina 
Quercus alba 
Quercus Durandi 
Quercus nigra 
Quercus Michauxii 
Hicoria alba 
Gleditschia triacanthos 
Cissus bipinnata 



Liriodendron tulipifera 
Morus rubra 
Negundo aceroides 
Fraxinus Americanus 
Acer saccharum 
Acer dasycarpum 
Cornus aspera 
Ulmus fulva 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 35 

Lonieera sempervirens Asimina triloba 

Bninnichia cirrhosa Aesculus glabra 

Ki'aunia fnitescens 

Common herbaceous forms over the river bottoms are : 

Clematis erispa Osmunda cinnamomea 

Arisaema qninatum Dioscorea villosa 

Phlox divarieata Ilysanthes gratioloides 

Eanunculus nitida Viola cucullata. 
Polymnia iivedalia 

Pontotoc Ridge. — This, the next topographic and soil divi- 
sion to l)e recognized, consists of a broad high ridge intricately 
eroded into hills and subordinate ridges with intervening val- 
leys of streams whose headwaters begin here. This broken 
upland, having in places, an elevation of nearly 800 feet above 
sea level, forms the water-shed of streams flowing east and 
southeast into the Tombigee, southwest into the Mississippi, 
and north into the Tennessee. 

The soils of the region are red sandy loams derived from 
the weathering of the glauconitic sandy marls of the basal Ter- 
tiary and uppermost Cretaceous beds. These red soils are 
much richer in plant food than their appearance would indicate, 
and support a rich growth. The plants of Pontotoc Eidge 
present decided differences from those of the prairies lying 
to the east, and the tertiary Flatwoods on the west. 

The northern part of the ridge is much broken into preci- 
pitous hills and sand ridges about the headwaters of the Hat- 
chie River, and the soil is sandy and rather sterile, so that the 
growth partakes largely of the character of the red sand hills 
of the prairie belt. Pines (Pinus mitis and Pinus taeda) are 
the principal tree growth, but with considerable admixture of 
caks (Quercus stellata, Quercus nigra, Quercus falcata, Quer- 
cus prinus) and chestnut. From New Albany, in Union Coun- 
ty, southward the soil is less sandy, richer, and the hills less 
broken. In this part the tree growth presents, besides the 
above species, the following in considerable abundance : 

Quercus rubra Acer rubrum 

Quercus acuminata Fagus ferruginea 



36 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Quercus alba 
Quereus pagodaefolius 
Quercus phellos et aquatica 
Quercus Texana 
Jugians nigra et cinerea 
Liquidamber styraciflua 

Commou shrubs and vines on the upland slopes are 



Gleditschia triacanthos 
Carya alba 
Acer dasycarpum 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Magnolia macrophylla : 



Hydrangea arborescens 
Berchemia volubilis (not 

common) 
Hamamelis Virginiana 
Butneria florida 
Smilax herbacea 
Smilax bona-nox 



Corylus Americanus 
Lindera benzoin 
Staphylea trifolia 
Aeseulus pavia 
Euonymus atropurpureus 
Hydrangea quercifolia 



Quercus prinus is limited to the high hills about the head 
waters of Hatchie Kiver. It is nowhere abundant, but grows 
occasionally to large size. Butternut (jugians cinerea) is oc- 
casional in this region on upland slopes, but no large specimens 
have been observed. Wahoo seems not to be distributed far- 
ther south in the state than the vicinity cf Pontotoc. Quercus 
rubra is ecmmon here and in the Tennessee River Hills, but 
rare elsewhere in the state. 

The tree and shrub flora listed above shows an undoubted 
northern affinity — almost as much so as that of the Tennessee 
River Hills. The herbaceous forms, perhaps even more than 
the trees, 'show their northern affiliation. Some cf the moro 
characteristic, mostly spring-flowering species, are given belo'. -• 



Uvularia grandiflora 
A.sarum Canadense 
Silene stellata 
Circaea lutetiana 
Geum album 
Obolaria Virginica 
Sanguinaria Canadensis 
( I cranium maculatum 
Botrychium Virginianum 
Polemonium reptans 
,-\ralia racemosa 



Cynoglossum Virginicur^ 
Aetaea alba 

Thalictrum purpurascens 
Oimicifuga racemosa 
Sanieula Canadensis 
Smilax errichata 
Aristolo'chia serpentaria 
Smijacina racemosa 
Claytonia Virginica 
Erigenia bubosa 
Trillium recurvatnm 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 3 7 

The following are common clinging to limestone bluffs : 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus Saxifraua Virginiensis 

Woodsia obtnsa Dentaria laciniata 

Iris eristata. Anemonella thalictroides 

riatwoods. — This region, as the name implies, presents 
usually a low lying flat topography, though in certain parts the 
surface becomes rolling and even hilly. The characteristic 
feature, however, is its flatness, which has caused it to be liken- 
ed to a broad river valley This region extends as a belt or 
zone from three to fifteen miles wide north and south alcng 
the west edge of Pontotoc Kidge from the line of Tennessee 
to the point of the Ridge. South cf Houston, Chickasaw Coun- 
ty, the Flatwcods skirt the western edge of the Cretaceous 
prairie region. 

The soil of this region is prevailingly a heavy, tenaeeous, 
dark gray clay, with a subsoil of gray joint clay. The drain- 
age is usually not good, so that the soil,except in drj^ years, is 
wet and cold, and more or less acid. This heavy type of soil 
shades in places into a lighter, sandier soil, w^hich lies higher 
and is better drained. Both types of soil are lacking in lime 
and are deficient in other elements of plant food. The close 
texture of the heavy clay soil makes it very tenaeeous cf 
moisture, so that it is either too wet to favor plant growth, or 
when dry becomes too hard and compact. So that the region 
is not cne of rich growth and those species present are usually 
of xcrophytic habit, which fits them for the extreme alternate- 
conditions of sterile, water-logged, acid soil, and dry soil of 
stony hardness. 

These conditions are re'flected in the tree and shrub growth 
of the region, which consists chiefiy of pine (Pinus mitis and 
Pinus taeda) and of oaks of a few xerophytic species, as black 
jack, post oak, and Spanish oak. These usually form open 
forests, with here and there on the lower flats scattered growth 
of haws (Crataegus, several species) and deciduous holly. 

Since soil and topographic features cf the Flatwoods shade 
into those of the larger region lying to the west — and next to 
be considered — the floristic features of the tAvo merge. Hence 



■dS MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

further description will be embraced under discussion of the 
next region. 

North Central Plateau. — This region is much larger than 
any of those so far considered It occupies all that region of 
the northern half of the state lying west of the Flatwoods and 
east of a belt fifteen to twenty miles wide bordering the Yazoo- 
Mississippi Delta. The boundaries may be traced on the sketch 
map. 

The surface of this region is that of a maturely eroded 
plateau of varying altitude, from less than 400 to more than 
600 feet above sea level, the higher altitudes being in the north- 
ern parts of the area. Many streams trench the surface, the 
larger having broad flats 100 to 200 feet lower than the Plateau 
surface. Usually two or more terraces fringe the stream val- 
leys. On account of the mature erosion the original plateau 
has been cut into hills and ridges, the surface being more 
broken and intricately dissected near the larger streams, while 
in the wider areas between streams the original plateau presents 
a gently rolling surface. As may be inferred from the forego- 
ing statements the uplands of the region are well drained. In 
the stream valleys the first bottoms in many places are badly 
drained and occupied with swamp growth, which will be de- 
scribed presently. 

The upland soils of the region present two very well de- 
fined aspects which really constitute two sub-regions, as the 
species occupying the two differ considerably. A north-south 
zone occupying about the east one-half of the area shows clay 
soils similar to those of the Flatwoods, though somewhat 
sandier and the surface more rolling. Over much of the area 
the tops of the hills and ridges are capped with yellow and red 
sandy loam soils; toward the western part of this subdivision 
the sandy soils very much predominate and the topography 
becomes more broken. These soils, as are those of the Flat- 
woods, are derived from weathering of outcropping clay and 
sand formations of the Eocene Tertiary. 

The western subdivision of the North Central Plateau has 
overlying the eroded surface of the eocene sands a blanket 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 39 

covering of a tawny or yellowish-hrown silt loam, which has 
been called the Brown Loam. This is a medium light soil, 
moderately rententive of moisture but is well drained. It is 
fairly rich in plant fcod, and a good agricultural soil. This 
soil is derived from the Loess, being the thin eastward exten- 
sion of it, varying in thickness from eight or ten feet down to 
one or two. 

As the flora of this region is representative cf at least one- 
third of the entire state, it will be treated somewhat fully. In 
the sandy eastern half of this region from Grenada County 
north, and in all the central parts of the state south of Grenada 
and north of Jackson prairies, the chief tree growth is pine 
(Pinus taeda and Pinus mitis being the common species). The 
forests, however, are not usually pure pine forests, but have 
a considerable admixture of oaks of several species, and other 
hardwood trees. The oaks most abundantly mixed with the 
pines are black jack, post oak, and Spanish oak. The typical 
forests of the sandy uplands are : 

Ulmus alata Pinus mitis 

Ulmus Americana Pinus taeda 

Prunus Americana Quercus nigra 

Sassafras officinale Quercus stellata 

Cornus florida Quercus falcata 

Vacciniuni arboreum Quercus velutina 

Diospyros Virginiana Carya tomentosa 

Castanea vesca. Carya porcina 

Of original growth, Pinus mitis, the short-leaf yellow pine, 
is the most common tree of the region, often growing in almost 
pure stand over large areas. The old field pine (Pinus taeda) 
is everywhere the most abundant second growth tree, in a few 
years covering with a dense growth of seedlings all old fields 
thrown out of cultivation. 

The shrubby undergrowth is somewhat typical, showing 
a decided xerophytic character, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing list : 

Vitis rotundifolia Vaecinium sttmineum 

Rhus radicans Rhus copallina 



40 



MISSISSIPPI STATE (JEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Ceanothns Amerioanus 
Hyraugea (luercifolia 
Hydrangea arborescens 



Hamamelis Virginiana. 
Corylus Americana 
Rhus glabra 



All the species, both of trees and of shrubs mentioned 
as common in this sandy subdivision, occur also in the west- 
ern subdivision where the silt Icam soils prevail, the difference 
consisting mainly in different proportions of the species. On 
the silt loam soil pine is not prominent as a part of the original 
growth and becomes less so as the loess bluffs are approached, 
while the number of varieties of hardwood species become 
greater and of more mesophyte character. 

The upland herbaceous forms of this region present less 
diversity than its extent and soil differences would lead us to 
expect. Common open land species are the following : 



Plantago aristata 
Houstonia patens 
Hc'ustonia longifolia 
Ranunculus fascicularis 
Nothoscordum striatum 
Stylosanthes elatior 
Rudbeckia hirta 
Commelyna Virginica 
Draba brachycarpa 
lonactis linariifolius 
Geranium Carolinanum 
Specularia perfcliata 
Cerastium viscosum 
Salvia lyrata 



Claytonia Virginica 
Anemone Caroliniana 
Asclepias tuberosa 
Ascyrum Crux-Andreaa 
Linum Virginianum 
Oenothera frusticosa • 
Stellaria media 
Ipomea pandurata 
Erigeron bellidifolius 
Apogon humilis 
Krigia Virginica 
Krigia dandelion 
Coreopsis lanceolata. 



Herbs that grow chiefly beneath open upland woods are this 



follc'wing : 

Tephrosia Virginica 
Antennaria plantaginifolia 
Ruellia ciliosa 
Viola palmata 
Viola pedata (in the pine 
region) 



Podophyllum peltatum 
Smilacina racemosa 
]\Iit<'hella repens 
Rosa humilis 
Potentilla Canadensis 
Geranium maculatum 



No. 17] 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



41 



Viola villosa 
Cyripedium pub esc ens 
Spiranthes gracilis 
Galium pilosum 
Galium circaezans 
Dioscorea villosa 
Heuchera Americana 
Pedicularis Canadensis 
Chamaelirium Carclinianum 



Tradescantia Virginica 
Asclepias variegata 
Asclepias obtusifolius 
Lithospermum canescens (in 

pine region) 
Pteris aquilina 
Phegopteris hexagonoptera 
Spigelia Marilandica 
Sanicula Canadensis. 



The lowland soils of this region are sandy loams rich in. 
plant food, although usually deficient in lime. A heavy hard- 
v/ood forest of numerous species originially occupied all the 
stream bottoms. Some c-f the common lowland trees are : 

Quercus alba Platanus occidentalis 

Carpinus Carolinianus 
Ulmus Americanus 
Ulmus fulva 
very com-Fagus ferruginea 



Quercus Michauxii 
Quercus lyrata 
Quercus aquatica 
Quercus rubra (not 

com) 
Acer dasycarpum 
Acer rubrum 
Ilex opaca 
Cercis Canadensis 



Carya alba 

Liriodendron tulipifera 
Taxodium distiehum 
Betula nigra. 



Shrubs and vines of the lowlands are: 



Crataegus apiifolia 
Alnus serrulata 
Rosa Carolina 
Cornus strieta 
Lonicera sempervirens 
Vitis rotundifolia 
Tecoma radicans 
Smilax rotundifolia. 



Cephalanthus occidentalis 
Aralia spinosa 
Euonymus Americanus 
Ilex decidua 
Vaccinium corymbosum 
Staphylea trifolia 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia 
Cissus bipinnata 
Asimina tril&ba 

Herbaceous forms of the wooded lowlands, especially in 
rich shaded soils, are represented by the following: 
Phlox divariaata Trillium sessille 

Arisaema triphyllum Uvularia perforata 



42 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Arisaema dracontium Uvnlaria sessilifolia 

Osmunda regalis Boehmeria cylindrica 

Osmimda cinnamomea Medeola Virginiea 

Adiautum pedatmn Thalictrum purpurascens 

Habenaria ciliaris Elodea campanulata 

Platanthera bracteata Galium trifidum 

Platanthera psychodes Dioclea Boykinii. 
Microstylis ophoioglosscddes 

. In open marshy places and bordering or growing in the 
vrater of pcnds and sluggish streams, the following are re- 
presentative : 

Eupatorum perfoliatum Zygadenus glaberrimus 

Eupatorium rotundifolium Ranunculus pusillus 

Senecio lobatus Linaria Canadensis 

PhysGstegia Virginiana Typha latifolia 

Dulichium spathaceum Rhexia Mariana 

Sagittaria variabilis Rhexia Virginiea 

Scirpus lacustris Ludwigia alternifolia 

Peltandra undulata Ludwigia palustris 

Hibiscus moscheutos Acorus calamus. 

Loess or Bluff Region. — This region embraces a narrow 
strip from 15 to 20 miles wide bordering the eastern edge of 
the Delta lowlands from the northern boundaries of the state 
to and beyond the line of Louisiana on the south. From Vicks- 
burg south the bluffs lie close in towards the river, and are 
rather more pronounced than farther north. The bluff hills 
lie on or somewhat below the general level of the central pla- 
teau, which it borders on the west, the characteristic precipi- 
tous hills of this region being remnants of the ragged edge of 
the interior plateau produced by the deep cutting of streams 
in passing from the plateau level to that of the Delta lowlands. 

The marked broken and intricate character of the topo- 
graphy is due to a peculiarity of the material eroded. Foi^ 
15 or 20 miles back from the Delta edge a thick deposit of cal- 
careous loess silt overlies the surface to- a depth of from 30 to 
75 feet, and forms the basis for the soil and for the petfuliaij 
character of erosion into vertical faces. This loess is a fine 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 43 

yellowish, calcareous silt, non-stratified, and containing numer- 
ous snail shells. It is thickest next to the Delta edge and thins 
toward its eastern margin. 

On accc'unt of the lime content the soil derived from this 
material is more fertile than that of the plateau farther back, 
and supports a somewhat different vegetation. In this region, 
the upland flora of the plateau and the lowland flora of tJic 
Delta come into competition, with the result that the flora, w^hile 
of hill type, has some characters derived from the Delta. 

The extent cf the region from north to south is such that, 
while the distinctive features of the flora persist, some species 
appear in the southern part that have not been found in the^ 
northern part, and vice versa. 

The tree growth of the Loess hills is almost entirely of 
hardwoods. Pines are not at all a common feature, except as 
secc-nd growth in old thrown out fields or other openings. Red 
cedar is not uncommon on the slopes, but was probably not a 
part of the original flora. Magnolias of several species are com- 
mon and characteristic ; several species of lime-loving trees that 
are common in the lime soils of northeast Mississippi skip the 
intervening regions and reappear here. Such are Durand's oak, 
the butternut and hackberry. The gray moss (Tillandsia usne- 
oides) drapes the trees, being especially abundant in the south- 
ern half of the region, and gradually disappearing before the 
northern boundary of the state is reached. Myrica cerifera 
has been observed toward the southern end of the region, but 
has not been seen farther north, though east of Pearl River in 
sandy loam soils, it is found considerably farther north. 

The beautiful white Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata), with 
its dark, glossy, trifoliate leaves and long trailing stems is very 
common and striking in the southern half of this region, and 
in the rich loam soils east of the Bluff region in the same lati- 
tudes. 

A few herbaceous species have been observed in this region 
are Croton Texensis, Parthenium hysterophorus and Heter- 
as far north as Natchez, and nowhere else in the state. These 



44 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



otheca Larmarkii. Pteris serrulata has been noted once cling- 
ing to the vertical loess bluffs at Natchez, and only once else- 
where in the state, on the walls of the Old Capitol at Jackson 
several years ago, before the repair of that building. 

The tree^ growth of the loess hills is rich, both in variety 
and in quantity. In its original state the forests were heavy 
and gloomy on account of the luxuri-ant growth of the gray 
moss which festooned all the trees, and because of abundance 
of lianas and creepers that matted the forests. Prominent in 
these forests were the following trees : 

Castanea pumila 



Carpinus Caroliniana 
Ostrya Virginica 
]\Iagnolia grandiflora 
Magnolia acuminata cordata 
]\Iagnolia macrophylla 
Liriodendrcn tulipifera 
Juglans nigra 
Juglans cinerea (north) 
Fagus feruginea 
Celtis ]\Iississippiensis 
Tilia pubescens 
Morus rubra 



(>arya tomentosa 
Carya myristicaeformis 
Quercus alba 
Quercus velutina 
Quercus Texana 
Quercus Durandi 
Quercus Michauxii 
Quercus aquatiea 
Ulmus Americana 
Qlmus fulva 



Climbers and shrubs 
following species: 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia 
Bignonia capreolata 
Tecoma radicans 
Rhus radicans 
Cissus bipinnata 
Cissus ampelopsis 
Vitis rotundifolia 
^itis riparia 
7itis labrusca 
Berchemia volubilis 
Vitis cordifola 
Rc-sa laevigata 
Gelsemium sempervirens 
Lonicera sempervirens 



cf the region are represented by the 

Calycocarpum Lyoni 
Hydrangea quercifolia 
Arundinaria macrosperma 
Cornus florida 
Cornus stolonifera 
Hydrangea arborescens 
Asimina triloba 
Euomymus Americana 
Hamamelis Virginica 
Callicarpa Americana 
Crataegus spathulata 
Crataegus viridis 
TJndera benzoin 
Myrica cerifera (south) 



No. 17] 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



Common herbaceous forms growing on the uplands and 
loess slopes are the following : 



Rubns villosus 
i\ubiis trivialis 
Ileterotlieea Lamarckii 
Equisetum rubnstum 
Arisaema draccntium 
(ialium pilc'sum 
Ascyrum Crux-Andreae 
Geum aibuiji 
Spig'.iliii ^lariiandica 
Eryni^ii'.ri prostratura 
Amphicarpaea nionoii^a 



Ascyrum hypericoides 
Euellia eiliosa 
Epiphegus Viriginiana 
Podophyllum peltarum 
Croton Texensis f south; 
Aspidium acrostiehoides 
Aspidium p'l^ens (, south) 
Desmodiura rotund i ft". ;rir;i 
Actea alba 
Solidago caesia 
Thalictrum purpurascens 
Adiantum pedaium (north) 



The lowlands of this region i)resent only slight differences 
from the flora of the adjacent Delta. A brief list of the tree.% 
and shrubs of the lowlands is given below : 



Quercus alba 
Quercus Michaiixii 
Quercus lyrata 
Quercus acuminata 
]\Iagnolia grandiflora, 
jNIagnolia acuminata cordata 
Liquidamber styraciflua 
Nyssa sylvatica 
Xyssa uniflora 
Taxodium distichum 
Fraxinus Americanus 



Fraxinus quadrangulata 
Fagus ferruginea 
Ilex opaea 
Carya olivaeforiais 
Carya aquatiea 
Planera aquatiea 
Acer dasycarpum 
Populus deltoidos 
Schizandra coccinea 
Brunuichia eir.rhosa 
Arundiuaria macrcsperma 



A few herbaceous forms associated with the above on the 
lowlands are given below : 



Polygonum Virginiaunm 
Eelipta alba 
^Mikania scandens 
Galium trifidum 
Galium eircaezans 
Impatiens fulva 
Phryma leptostachya 



Tillandsia usenoides 
Boehmeria eylindriea 
l^vularia perfoliata 
Ludwigia alternifolia 
Jussiaea decurrens 
Mimulus alatus 
Lobelia cardinalis 



46 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Pilea pumila Aspidium thelypteris 

Euonymus Americanus Asclepias perennis 

The Yazoo Delta. — The Delta region embraces all the allu- 
vial lowlands bordering the Mississippi River and the lower 
courses of its tributaries. It is a narrow strip, from one to a 
few miles wide in south Mississippi, but north of Vicksburg, 
■Warren County, it widens to a broad nearly level plain 60 
miles wide at its widest part, and about 200 miles in length. 
This plain lies so nearly level that the drainage is poor, and 
occasionally much of it overflows. 

The soil is very rich, but presents two well-marked phases. 
Along the streams and for a few miles back the soil is a fine 
sandy loam which lies a little higher and is better drained than 
the lands within the interGtream areas, where owing tc their* 
relative lowness and the heavier clay soils, much of the surface 
is permanently occupied by bayous, lakes and swamps. 

These Delta plains were cff-ginally covered with heavy 
hardwood forests, much of which still stands in the low swam- 
py areas. The trees are prevailingly of the moisture and 
water loving kinds, as would be expected, and differ from the 
tree flora of the last described region quantitatively rather 
than qualitatively. While no new species are found in this 
section, the bulk of the forest growth runs much more largely 
to a few dominant species. On the higher, better drained soils 
a fine growth of lowland oaks prevail, with an admixture of ash, 
hickory, pecan, beech, hackberry, and magnolia, with com- 
paratively little undergrowth except along bayous and stream 
channels. In the low swamp areas the tree growth becomes 
predominently a forest of swamp species, mainly of gum (Nyssa 
silvatica, N. unifiora and N. aquatica), red gum (Liquidamber 
styraciflua) and cypress, in dense growth. Cane and palmetto 
palm often form dense undergrowth all ])ut impenetrable. 

In open sand flats near the Mississippi Kiver Cottonwood 
is a very common growth, as also is the willow (Salix nigra). 

The herbaceous flora of the Delta is not very varied. The 
shade of the forest is such that few species thrive beneath them. 
A few species not already mentioned as occurring in the adja- 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 47 

cent refrion, tocrether -vvitli a few others most commonly found 
in tlie lowlands, are given here: 

Polygcnum Virginianum Hymenocallis lacera 

Commelina hirtella Lythrum alatum (openings) 

Penthoruni sedoides Ammannia coecinea 

Lippia laneeolata Spermacoee glabra 

Saururus cerniius Conobea multifida 

Asf'lepias perennis Spilanthes repens 

Jackson Prairie Region. — This region of small prairies ex- 
tends in a belt varying from 10 to 30 miles miles wide, in a 
directic-n slightly northwest and southeast across the state 
(boundaries may be seen on the sketch map). Its greatest 
breadth is in the extreme western part from the longitude 'of 
Jackson to the Bluff Hills; eastward it narrows to the Alaba- 
ma line. The region is one of rolling topography. In parts, 
as in the southern half of Madiscn County and the northern 
part of Hinds, the surface is gently rolling; in other parts 
where the soil is sandy, the topography is mere broken. In the 
broad western part of the area the surface soil is Brown Loam 
of loess origin modified somewhat by the underlying cacareous 
Jackson clays; the sandy, hilly parts have a soil derived from 
the overlapping of the Jackson clays by red and yellowish 
sands of the Pliocene beds. 

Tlie typical prairie soils are rather heavy dark gray, or, 
in much of the area, lighter gray clays produced by the weather- 
ing of the calcareous clays and marls of the Jackso-n formation. 
This character of soil is not found in continuity over wide 
spaces, but is generally patchy, the patches being surrounded 
by one of the other tj^pes. 

As would be expected, the flora of the region presents three 
rather well-marked phases. The typical soil, that of the true 
prairie type, supports a characteristic prairie flora; the west- 
tern loam part supports the flora of the Brown Loam region, 
modified by invasions from the prairie flora, and the sandy 
loam parts toward the southeast support the extensions of the 
flora of the southern long-leaf pine belt, modified by additions 
from the prairie flora. 



48 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

In this brief sketch it will be necessary to notice only the 
flora of the typical prairie, since the flora of the adjacent Brown 
Loam region, already considered, gives a representative impres- 
sion of the vegetation of that part of the region overlain by the 
Brown Loam. The sandy soil division is sufficiently like the 
region lying immediately south that a discussion of the one wil] 
bring out the salient characteristics of both. 

jNIost of the surface of even the prairie soil is now or has 
been, occupied by a somewhat undersized tree growth, in places 
quite open, in others rather dense. Further, while the trees in 
the western part are mostly hardwoods of a few species, in the 
more eastern parts pine, both long-leaf and short-leaf, is the 
dominant tree, affording commercial stands. These are prob- 
ably invasions, the long-leaf pine coming from the sand regions 
to the south, and shortleaf pine from the sandy hills to the north 
of the prairie region. That the pine is normally not a tree 
of the loess soil is evident, though it invades that region as a 
second growth. Practicallly all the commercial pine of the 
state lies east of the Loess and Brown Loam regions. 

The trees growing chiefly in the Avestern loam part of the 
prairie region are hardwoods, consisting of oaks of a few spe- 
cies, as post oak, black jack, Spanish oak, tan-bark oak, and 
Texas oak. AYith these, occasional hickories, persimmon, and 
cedar occur. Along with the pines in the more eastern parts 
black jack and post oak are common, and occasionally the tur- 
key oak extends into the sandy ridges. 

Some characteristic herbaceous species of the prairies pro- 
per are given below : 

Rhus ccpallina Penstemon pubescens 

Thus glabra Petalostemon candidus 

Tephrosia spicata Petalostemon violaeeus 

Rhynchosia tomentosa Baptisia leucantha 

Delphineum azureum Silphium integrifolium 

Linum Virginianum Silphium scaberrimum 

Aesculus pavia Liatris spicata 

Polygala Boykinii Aster virgatus 

Desmanthus luteus Rudbeckia hirta 

Desmanthus brachylobus Rud))eckia triloba 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 49 

Eclimacea purpurea Rudbeekia laciniata 

►Solidago r.ugosa Buchnera elongata 

Onosmodiiim Carolinianum Cacalia tuberosa 

Heleninm angustifolium Crotalaria Purshii 

Ileliaiithus laetiflorus Agave Virginica 

Collinsonia scabriuscula . Asclepias variegata 

Aeerates paniculata Asclepias tuberosa 
Asclepiodora viridis 

Lowland forms will not be described, as tliey present no 
characteristics different from the lowlands of adjacent regions, 
in connection with which they are sufficiently discussed. 

Long- Leaf Pine Region. — This division constitutes the 
whole of the state south of the Jackson prairies and east cf the 
Loess region, except a low flat coastal stretch a few feet above 
sea level, and extending from five to fifteen miles inland from 
the beach. The soil here is sandy, and as just stated, the floris- 
tic characteristics are noticed in the eastern half o-f the state 
extending as far north as Meridian, thus lapping over that end 
of the Jackson prairie region. Since the red sandy formation 
that furnishes the soil of the Icng-leaf pine section extends 
north of Meridian, the flora of the region has followed the soil 
northward. 

As mentioned above, this is a reddish-brown sandy loam, 
and is on the whole a more sterile soil than any of those already 
considered. It is generally poor in all the elements cf plant 
food, and when above drainage is very dry. In the southern 
parts, however, low swales and flats between ridges are poorly 
drained, with wet and acid soil. The water-logged condition 
of the soil induces an acidity simulating the condition of a nor- 
thern bog, with the result that these places support a flora 
very suggestive of bog flora. 

The upland forests of this region are almost pure Ion- 
leaf pine (Pinus australis), with a very sparse sprinkling of 
other trees, though near the northern boundary there is a large 
admixture of short leaf yellow pine, and on the western border 
a considerable hardwood growth invades from the loess forests. 
Along stream valleys the pines are replaced by hardwoods of 



50 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



numerous species, since the long leaf pine is not usually a low- 
land tree. Sterile sandy ridges in places support, besides the 
pine, a considerable shrubby growth of turkey oak and blue 
jack. 

Kemembering that over the greater part of this region the 
long-leaf pine constitutes fully ninety per cent of the tree 
growth, we append a list of the trees growing on the uplands 
of the region. 



Rhus copallina 
Rhus toxicodendron 
Castanea pumila 
Viburnum dentatum 
Pyrus angustifolia 
Liquidamber styraciflua 
Quercus stellata 
Cornus florida 
Prunus Americana 



Rhus typhina 
Dic«pyros Virginiana 
Sassafras officinale 
Pinus australis 
Pinus mitis 
Pinus taeda 
Pinus heterophylla 
Quercus cinerea 
Quercus nigra 
Quercus Catesbaei 



The following is a partial list of herbaceous species which 
grow beneath the open upland pine forests : 



Tephrosia Virginiana 
Tephrosia spicata 
Phaseolus pauciflorus 
Coreopsis laneeolata 
Aster adnatus 
Aster patens 
Aster paludosus 
Jatropha stimulosa 
Stillingia salvatica 
Cassia nictitans 
Cassia chamaecrista 
]\Iierantha fuchsioides 
Gerardia aphylla 
Ascyrum stans 
Ascyrum erux-andreae 
Liatris spicata 
Liatris squarrosa 



Stylosanthes elatior 
Ruellia ciliosa 
Houstcnia purpurea 
Eringium yuccaefolium 
Pycnanthemum linifolium 
Asclepias tuberosa 
ilryngium virgatum 
Polygala nana 
Polygala lutea 
Polygala grandiflora 
Clitoria mariana 
Centrosema Virginiana 
Rhynchosia reniformis 
Chrysopsis gramifolia 
Afzelia cassioides 
Dasytoma pectinata 
Rudbeckia hirta 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 51 

Drosera rotundifolia Honstonia ro-tundifolia 

Agave Virginiea Aselepias amplexicaiilis 

Lupinns villosus Silphium scaberrimum 

Trees and shrubs on stream ])C'ttoms and l)ordering swamps 
are the following: 

Pinus taeda Quercus phellos 

Pinus glabra Quercus laurifolia 

Chamnaecyparis thyoides Quercus aquatieus 

Nyssa sylvatiea Quercus Virginiana 

Nyssa aquatica Quercus Michauxii 

Liquidamber styracifiua Magnolia grandiflora 

Acer dasycarpum Magnolia glauca 

Symplocos tinctoria Magnolia macrophylla 

Azalea nudiflora Chionantlius Virginica 

Azalea viscosa Leucothoe axillaris 

Cyrilla racemiflcra Illiciuni Ploridanum 

Smilax laurifolia Gelsemiuni senipervirens 

Stewartia Virginica Halesia diptera 

Fraxinus Caroliniana Ilex vomitoria 
Taxodium distiehum. 

The herbaceous forms are sufficiently like those of the 
Coastal Pine iMeadows, the next region to be discussed, that 
consideration of them will be deferred. 

Coastal Pine Meadows. — This is a low-lying region cf slight 
relief. It borders the Gulf like a penumbra five to fifteen miles 
in width, but occasionally, especially around bay heads, widen- 
ing to twenty-five or thirty miles. It is nowhere more than 
twenty to thirty feet above sea level. Ground water lies near 
the surface over the whole area, coming to the surface in occa- 
sional depressions, forming marshes and swamps which tend to 
follow lines roughly parallel with the coast. Near the coast 
an occasional sand ridge from ten to twenty feet higher than 
surrounding parts marks the position of former beach dunes, 
now fixed and clothed with vegetation, which varies from car- 
pet grass and sand peas to tall pine forests. 

The soil is sandy and grayish in the higher parts, and in 
the intervening low wet meadows, where water usually stands, 



52 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[Bull. 



is black, peaty ,and acid. All the streams flowing through this 
region are sluggish and tortuous, with sandy bottoms and clear, 
amber-colored, peaty water. 

This whole area is clothed with an open growth of pine and 
on the wet acid soils occurs an undergrowth of characteristic 
species resembling that cf northern bogs. From a floristie 
point of view it is perhaps the most interesting region in the 
state, possessing more species peculiar to itself than any other. 

The trees and shrubs cf the dryer areas are represented by 
the following pecies : 



Pinus australis 
Pinus taeda 
Pinus heterophylla 
Quercus Virginiana 
Quercus laurifolia 
Quercus Catesbaei 
Quercus nigra 
j\J[agnolia grandiflora 



Quercus cinerea 

Acer dasycarpum (along 

streams) 
Simplocos tinctoria 
Cyrilla racemiflora 
Cliftoni?, ligustrina 
Oxydendrum arboreum 



Some of these species are also found along streams and 
bordering swamps. Others found in the lew wet depressions 
are: 



Ilex glabra (in dense thickets) 
Ilex vomitoria 
Magnolia glauca 
Andromeda nitida 
Osmanthus Americana 
Gaylussacia dumosa 
Nyssa aquatica 
Xyssa unitiora 



Chamaecyparis thyoides 
Cliftonia ligustrina 
Cyrilla racemiflora 
Azalea viscosa 
Azalea nudifl'oTa 
Serenoa serrulata 
Persea pubeseens 



Herbaceous species of the higher and drier soils are re- 
presented by the following: 



Polygala lutea 
Polygala nana 
Ehexia glabella 
Hhexia Virginica 
Rhexia stricta 



Hypericum densiflorum 
Viola primulaefolia 
Trilisa odoratissima 
Linum Floridanum 
Pinguicula lutea 



No. 17] 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



53 



Rhexia scrriilata 
Sabbatia gracilis 
Sabbatia campanulata 
Oenothera fruticosa 
Lobelia glandulosa 
Lycopodiuni alopecuroides 



Aster vernus 
Sarracenia psittacina 
Ascyriim pumilum 
Aseyrum stans 
Zjgadenus glaberrimus 



On low, acid, marshy depressions and open savannas, and 
bordering or growing in marshes, are interesting forms, some of 
the commoner and more characteristic of which are given be- 
low : 



Sarracenia rubra 
Sarracenia flava 
Sarracenia Drummondi 
Drosera rotunditlora 
Drosera filiformis 
Drosera intermedia 
Pogonia ophioglossoides 
Pogonia divaricata 
Calopogon pulchellus 
Calopogon parviflorus 
Hibiscus aculeatus 
Xyris torta 
Lycopodium alopecuroides 



Stokesia laevis 
Chaptalia tomentosa 
Badwinia unifiora 
Rhexia lutea 
Eriocaulon decangulare 
Erioeaulon septangulare 
Lophiola aurea 
Polygala ramosa 
Polygala cymo-sa 
Aletris aurea 
Aletris farinosa 
Zygademus glaberrimus 



The Gulf furnishes a strand flora quite distinct from that 
of the rest of the state. This is chiefly because of strand con- 
ditions, but also partly because of an accession of a number of 
tropical or subtropical species. In discussing the beach flora 
the species mentioned will include characteristic forms found 
on the islands off the coast. 

Some of the common species found upon and immediately 
above the sandy beaches are given here. 

Among trees the commonest are the live oak (Quercus ger- 
tinata), pine (Pinus australis, Pinus taeda, Pinus heterophylla), 
myrica cerifera, and just above tide groves of Daubentonia 
longifolia. 



54 



MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



[BulL 



Herbaceous plants common on the sandy beaches are 



Amphistelma filiforme 
Cenchrus megacephalus 
L/inum Foridanum 
Croton maritimus 
Solanum sisymbriifolium 
Solanum alaeagnifolium 
Solanum aculeatissimum 
Solanum gracile 
Cakile fusiformis 
Dondia linearis 
Strophostyles helvolus 



Cenchrus tribuloides 
Physalis angustifolia 
Oenothera humifusa 
Chrysopsis scabrella 
Opuntia pes-corvi 
Panicum amarum 
Ipomcea saggitata 

Sal sola kali 

Sesuvinm portulacastrum 

Euphorbia polygonifolia 



Of characteristic species on dunes a little back from the 
beach, a few dune formers and sand binders are given here : 



Ilex vomitoria 
Serenoa serrulata 
Ceratiola ericcides 
Uniola paniculata 



?ilyrica cerifera 
Tpomoea pes-caprae 
Ipomoea acetosaefolia 
Panicum halophilum. 



On live oak and pine flats immediately back from the beach 
dunes, especially on the larger islands, a few typical species 
occur, as given here : 



Smilax auriculata 
Quercus geminata 
Pinus taeda 
Froelechia Ploridana 
Polygonella Americana 
Jatropha stimulosa 
syn- Lechea tenuifolia 
Trilisa cdoratissima 
Diodia teres 



Serenoa serrulata 
Myrica cerifera 
Cenchrus megacephalus 
Cenchrus tribuloides 
Calamintha coccinea 
Erythrina herbaeea 
Eryngium yuccaefolium 

chatum 
Cassia chamaeehrista 
Cladonia rangiferina. 

Forms that are found in salt marshes along the coast and 
upon the chain of islands, are the following: 



Lvcium Carolinianum 



Heterotheca Lamarkii 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 55 

Avicennia nitida (on muck Solidago sempervirens 

islands) Borrichia frutescens 

Pluchea camphorata Aster tenuifclia 

Crantzia lineata Gerardia maritima 

Hydrocotyle ranunciiloides Seutera maritima 

Hydroeotyle interrupta Batis maritima 

Sensiiviiim portulacastrum Salicornia herbacea 

Iva frutescens Atriplex cristata 

Statiee Caroliana Utricularia subulata 

Dichromena leucoeephala (in 
brackish marshes) 

The species given here are only a small proportion of those 
occurring in this regicn of coastal flats. Comparing the flora 
of these flats and adjacent pine uplands with the pine barrens 
flora of the Atlantic coastal regoin — of southern New Jersey, 
for example — a remarkable paralellism will be noted. In 
general character the two floras have much in common, and 
many species are identical, or represented by closely related 
forms. Both have a comparatively large number of species 
peculiar to the region, and, as just stated, a good many in com- 
mon that are not shown by other regions, though the Bog flcra 
of the northern United States approaches closely in character 
and aspect that of the pine barrens. General similarity of soil 
conditions may be sufficient to explain the persistence of these 
peculiar floras in their particular situations, but hardly ac- 
counts for their origin in such widely separated areas. 



No. 171 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 

TTTT 



57 




SKETCH JIAP OF TOPOGRAPHIC EEGIONS 

1 — Tennessee River Hills. 

2 — Northeast Prairie Belt. 

3 — Pontotoc Ridge. 

4 — Flatwoods. 

5 — North Central Plateau. 

6 — Jackson Prairie Belt. 

7 — Loess or Bluff Region. 

8— Yazoo Delta. 

9 — Coastal Pine Meadows. 



Catalogue of Flowering Plants and Ferns 



PTERIDOPHYTA. FERN PLANTS. 

Sub-Kingdom PTERmOPHYTA Fern-like Plants 

Order FILICALES. Ferns proper. 

Family OPHIOGLOSSACEAE. Adder's Tongue Family. 
Ophioglossum L. Adder's Tongue. 

Ophioglossum pusillum Nutt. (0. nudieaule Sturm.) 
Sandy soil near the coast (Mohr). 

BOTRYCHIUM Sw. Grape Fern. 

Botrychium ternatum (Thumb) Sw. . (Osmunda ternatum 
Thunb.) 

Rich shaded soil. Prentiss Co., Itawamba Co., DeKalb, 
Collins. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Botrychium Virginianum (L) Sw. (Osmunda Virg-iniana L.) 

Damp rich woods. Hattiesburg ; Shubuta; New Albany; 
Ripley; Eastport; Vicksburg. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Family POLYPODIACEAE. Fern Family 

POLYPODIUM L. Polypody. 

Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Hitchcock (P. incanum Sw.) 
Shady rocks and trees ; a crevice plant in the sandstone 
bluffs of Tishomingo Co. ; Oxford ; Carrollton ; Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ADIANTUM L. Maidenhair Fern. 

Adiantum capillus-veneris L. 

Shaded limestone bluffs, Limestone Creek, Wayne Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



60 :MISSISSIPPI state geological survey [Bull. 

Adiantum pedatum L. 

Rich shaded slopes; Tishomingo, Grenada, ^Madison, War- 
ren, and Claiborne Counties; Ripley; Eastport; Itawamba Co.; 

Columbus. * 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PTERIS L. Brake Fern. 

Pteris aquilina L. 

Dry open upland v.'oods in most parts of the state. Tisho- 
mingo Co., Hinds Co. ; Lafayette Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Pteris aquilina caudata L. 

Coastal regions and islands (Tracy); Collins; Pascagoula. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Loess bluffs, Natchez; clinging to damp walls of the Old 

Loss bluffs, Natchez ; clinging to damp walls of the Old 
Capitol, Jackson. 

CHEILANTHES Sw. Lip Fern. 

Cheilanthes lanosa (Michaux.) Watt. (Cheilanthes vestita Sv/.) 
Shaded limestone bluffs, Tishomingo Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

WOODWARDIA J. E. Smith. Chain Fern. 

Woodv^ardia areolata (L) ]Moore (W. angustifolia Smith.) 
Shaded wet soil and swamps. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; 
Warren Co.; Newton; Lost Gap; Chunky; Biloxi (Tracy). 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ASPLENIUM L. Spleenwort. 

Asplenium playneuron (L) Oakes (A. ebeneum Ait.) 

Damp shaded soil ; Oxford ; Eastport ; Utica ; New Albany ; 
Hattiesburg. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asplenium angnstifolium Michx. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort. 
Rich moist w-oods. Eastport along Tennessee River bluffs; 
Morton; Ripley. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 61 

Asplerdmn filix-foemina (L.) Bernh. (Polj'podium filix-foe- 
miiia.j Lady Feru. 

Moist woods. Lafayette Co.; Simpson Co., (Hilg. Ms.); 
Ripley. 

CA:\IPT0S0RUS Link, Walking Fern. 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link; 

On limestone ledges along Tennessee River Bluffs at East- 
port; Pontotoc Ridge, east and northeast of New Albany. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PHEGOPTERIS Fee. Beech Fern. 

Phegoptheris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fee. (Poiyodium hexa- 
gonoptera Michx.) 

Rich shaded woods. Lafayette, Hinds, AVarren and Tish- 
omingo Counties ; Pontotoc, Ripley, Eastport, Grenada, 
Meadville, Fulton. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

POLYSTICHUM Roth. Christmas Fern. 

Folystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. (Aspidium acros- 
choides Sav.) 

Rather dry wooded slopes over the state. Oxford; Jack- 
son ; Carrollton ; Charleston ; New Albany. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

DRYOPTERIS Adans. Shield Fern. 

Dryopteris thelypteris (L) Gray (Aspidium thelypteris Sw.) 
Swamps. Yv^arren Co.; Tishomingo City; Picayune. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Dryopteris Floridana (Hook.) Kuntze (Aspidium Floridana 
Eaton\ 

Damp shaded woods. Picayune. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray (Aspidium marginale Sw.) 
Damp shaded woods. Southwestern Hinds Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



62 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Dryopteris patens (Sw.) Kuntze (Aspidium patens Sw.) 

Shaded woodlands in southern counties. Southern Hinds 
(T. P. Bailey) ; Jefferson and Wayne Counties; Smith Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CYSTOPTERIS. Bernh. Bladder Fern. 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. ( Polypodium fragile L.) 
On limestone ledges in northeast Mississippi. Eastport. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ONOCLEA L. Sensitive Fern. 

Onoclea sensibilis L. 

Shaded swamps. Lafayette Co.; Hinds Co. (T. P. Bailey) ; 
Clarke Co. ; Toomsuba ; Pontotoc ; Ripley ; Lost Gap ; Grena- 
da : Mich. City ; Fulton. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

WOODSIA, R. Brown. 

Woodsia obtusa (Spring.) Torr. (Aspidium obtusum Willd.) 
Shaded rocky banks. Eastport; New Albany; southern 
Hinds Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

TRICHOMANES L. Bristle Fern. 

Trichomanes Fetersii, Gray. 

Dripping sandstone ledges. "Alabama. Georgia and Mis- 
sissippi," Small. 

OSMUNDA L. Flowering Fern. 

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern. 

Open swamps perhaps throughout the state. Oxford, 
Landon ; Smith Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Eastport ; Lost Gap ; Mich. 
City ; Meadville. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Osmunda spectabilis Willd. (0. regalis L.) Royal Fern. 

Borders of marshes, probably over the state. Oxford; 
Landon ; ; Bay St. Louis ; Ripley ; Eastport ; Mich. City ; Lost 
Gap. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 63 

Order EQUISETALES. . . Horsetails. 

Family EQUISATACBAE. Horsetail Family. 

Equisetum L. 

Equisetum hyemale L. 

Wet banks and marshes. New Albany; Charleston. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Equisetum robustum A. Br. 

Wet depressions in loess hills. Natchez; Haynes' Bluff, 
Warren Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Order LYCOPODIALES. Club Mosses. 

Family LYCOPODIACEAE. Club Moss Family. 

Lycopodium L. Club Moss. 

Lycopodium alopecuroides L. 

Low wet pine barrens. Lost Gap; Lauderdale Springs; 
Picayune ; Landon ; Tylertown. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Lycopodium adpressum (Chapm.) Lloyd & Underw. (Lycopo- 
dium alopecuroides adpressum Chapm.) 
Pine barren swamps ; near the coast. Mohr. 

Lycopodium piunatum (Chapm.) Lloyd & Underwood (L. in- 
undatum pinnatum, Chapm.) 

Pine barren swamps near the coast. Mohr. 

Lycopodium Carolinianum L. 

Low pine barrens of South Mississippi. Lauderdale 
Springs ; Picayune ; State Line. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Lycopodium cemuum L. 

Wet banks near the coast. Small. 

Lycopodium Chapmanii Underw. 

Wet shaded depressions. Fulton; Winona; Lauderdale 
Springs ; State Line ; Hurley ; Lyman. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 



64 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Family SELAGINELLACEAE. Underw. 

SELAGINELLA Beauv. 

Selaginella apus (L.) Spring. (Lycopodium apodum L.) 

Wet springy banks, ocstly in pine barrens. Jackson; 
Hattiesburg. 

Geo. Surv. Herb. 

Subkingdom SPERMATOPHYTA. Flowering and Seed-bearing 

Plants. 

Class GYLINOSPERMAE. Cone-bearing Plants. 

PINACEAE. Pine Family. 

Pinus L. Pine. 

Pinus taeda L. Loblolly, or Old Field Pine. 

Mostly an upland tree throughout the state in light sandy 
soils. Not common originally in the loess bluffs bordering 
the Mississippi Delta, or in the Delta. As second growth 
forms dense youn forests throughout the state. 

Pinus hetrophylla, (Ell.) SudAvorth (P. Elliottii Englem.) 

Cuban Pine. 

Coast Counties. (Hilg. Rep.) Coastal Islands. 
AVayne, Perry, Forrest, Lamar Counties. 

Pinus palustris Mill. (P. australis Michx.) Long Leaf Pine. 

Southern counties to the Coast; Coastal Islands. (Tracy.) 
Lost Gap. 

Pinus echinata ^lill. (P. mitis Michx.) Short Leaf Yellow Pine. 
Central Pine Belt. 

Allison Herbarium 

Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine. 

First bottoms of streams flowing into the Gulf. Smith 
Wayne, Jones, Neshoba, Hinds, Pike, Amite, Forest and Han- 
cock counties; Lauderdale. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 65 

Pinus Virginiana -Mill. (P. inops Ait.) 

Northeastern liii^'hlands, Ti.sliomingo Co.; Oktibbeha Co. 
(Tracy.) 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TAXODIUM L. C. Rich. Bald Cypress. 

Taxodium distichum (Jj.j L. ('. Rich. (Cupressus disvieha L.) 
Throughout tiie state on river flood plains. 

Taxodium distichum imbricaria. (Nutt.) Sudworth. (Cupres- 
sus disticha imbricaria Nutt.) 

Coastal Counties; Fontanbleau (R. ]\I. Harper): Hurley; 
Picayune. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHAMAECYiPi'iEIS. White Cedar. 

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P. (Cupressus thyoides L.) 
Coastal pine region in sandy swamps. Picayune ; Pearl 
River Co.; Moss Point (Harper). 

JUNIPERUS. Juniper. 

Juniperus Virginiana L. Red Cedar. 

Throughout the state. Coastal Islands. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Juiperus Barbadensis L. (J. Virginiana australis Carr.) 
Sparingly along the Gulf Coast. 

Class ANGIO SPERM AE. True Flowering Plants. 
Sub-class MONOCOTYLEDONES. 
Family TYPHACEAE. 
Typba L. Cat-Tail 
Typha latifolia L. 

Marshes throughout the state. — June. 

Typha angustifolia L. 

IMarshes near the Coast and Coastal Islands. — 'June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



66 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

SPARGANIACEAE. Bur-reed Family. 

SPARGANIUM. Bur-reed. - 

Sparg-anium androchladum (Engelm.) jMorong (S. simplex 
androchladum Engelm.) 
Shallow ponds and marshes. Oxford ; luka. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

NAIADACEAE. Pond Weed Family. 

Potamog'eton L. Several undetermined species. 

RUPPIA L. Ditch grass. 

Ruppia maritima L. 

Brackish pools along the Coast and Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). June. 

SCHEUCHZERIACEAE. Arrow-Grass Family. 

TRIGLOCHIN. Arrow-grass. 

Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pav. 

Marshes along the Coast and Coastal Islands. (Tracy), 
June and July. 

ALISMACEAE. Water-Plantain Family. 
ALISMA L. Water Plantain 

Alisma plantago aquatica L. 

Marshes throughout the state. 

ECHINODORUS Engelm. 

Echinodorus radicans, (Nutt.) Engelm. (Sagittaria radicans 
Nutt.i 

Marshes in Coastal Counties, mostly; Tunica. May- July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SAGITTARIA L. Arrowhead. 

Sagittaria latifolia \Villd. (S. variabilis Engelm.) 

]\larslies throughout the State. Jackson; Lumberton. Sep- 
tember. 

Geol. Surv. Herl). 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 67 

Sagittaria lancifolia L. 

^larshes lunir the coast; Picayune; Petit Hois Island. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Sagittaria lancifolia falcata (Pursh.) J. G. Smith, (S. Falcata 
l'ur.sh.) 

Marshes along the Coast; Hancock Co. (A. Allison), July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Sagittaria graminea, Michx. 

Ponds and marshes. Chunky ; Gulfport. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Sagittaria cycloptera (J. G. Smith) >Iohr. (S. graminea cyclop- 
tera, J. G. Smith). 

Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy). June. 

Sagittaria platyphyl' a (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. 

Ponds and ditches. Coast regions, and northward (Moiir). 
June-September. 

POACEAE. Grass Family 
TRIPSACUM L. Spiked Gama Grass. . 

Tripsacum dactyloides L. 

Along ditches. Yalobusha Co. (Hilg. Ms.) Oxford: Stark- 
ville ; Rankin Co. : Wilkinson Co. ; Biloxi. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb, and A. & ^I. College Herb. 

ERIANTHUS, Michx. Plume Grass. 

Erianthus alopecuroides L. (Ell.) (Andropogon alopecuroides 
L.) 
In swampy lands. ]\Iarion Co. (Hlg. Ms.) 

Erianthus Tracy i Xash. 

Oktibbeha Co. (Tracy.) 

Erianthus saccharoides ^liclix. 

^larshes near the coast. Biloxi; Ocean Springs: Stark- 
ville. (Tracy.) 

A. & :d. College Herb. 

Erianthus Irevibarbi^ ]\lichx. (E. alopecuoides brevarbis 
Chapm.) 



68 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Lawrence County (Hlg. Ms.) ; Jackson Co.; Starkville 
(Tracy). September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Erianthus strictus Bald. 

Margins of swamps. Coastal region ; Harrison Co. ; Coast- 
al Islands (Tracy) ; Columbus. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Erianthus Smallii Nash. 

Eastern and Central Prairies. (Mohr.) 

Erianthus tripsacoides. 

Harrison Co. (Traisy). 

Erianthus contortus Ell. 
Pine "woods (Small.) 

MANISURIS L. 

Manisuris rug"osa Chapm. (Rottboellia rugosa Chapm.) 

Borders of swamps in coastal region (Tracy) September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Manisuris corru^ata (Bald.) Mohr (Rottboellia corrupata 
Bald.) 

Wet pine barrens near the coast. Ocean Springs. Aug. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Manisuris corrug-ata areolata (Hackel) Mohr. (Rottboellia cor- 
rugata areolata Hackel.) 

Low pine barrens near the coast (Mohr.) 

Manisuris cylindrica (Mchx.) Kuntze. 
Eastern part of state. (Mohr.) 

HACKELOCHLOA Kuntze. 

Hachelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze (Manisuris granularis S. 
W.) Adv. 
Waste grounds. Newton. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

ANDROPOGON L. 

Andropogon tener Kunth. 

Dry sandy soil. Biloxi; Columbus (Tracy.) August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 69 

Andropog-on glaucopsis Small. 
Dry soil (Small). 

Andropogon scopaxius Miehx. 

Occurs over the state in thin sandy soil. Simpson Co. 
(Hlg. Ms.) ; Oktibbeha and Harrison counties (Tracy). 

Andropog'on scoparius villosa. 

Saltillo. 

A. & .M. College Herb. 
Andropog-on scoparius villosissimus Kearn. 

Dry samly soil (Small). 

Andropog-on scoparius flexile. 

Coastal Counties and Islands (Tracy). 

Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B. S. P. (Cinna glomerata 
Walt.) 

Damp pine barrens. Smith Co. (Hlg. ]\Is.) ; Oktibbeha 
Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Andropogon macrourus viridis j\Iichx. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Andropogon Virginicus L. (A. dissitiflorum Michx.) 

Dry, sandy soil. Tishomingo Co. (A. Allison) ; Oktibbe- 
ha and Harrison counties ; Coastal Islands. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Andropogon perangustatus Nash. 
Dry soil (Small.) 

Andropogon corymbosus (Chapn.) Nash (A. macrourus eorym- 
bosus Chapm.) 

Wet pine barrens (Small). Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Andropogon camphyloracheus Nash. 
Dry sandy soil. (Small.) 

Andropogon Tennesseensis Scribn. 

Dry soil (Small). 

Andropogon Traoyi Nash. 

Dry soil. Columbus (Tracy). 



70 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Andropogon tetrastachyus Ell. 

Stark viile and Gulf Coast (Tracy). October. 

A. & :\r. College Herb. 
Andropogon Mohrii (Hackel) 

Gulf Coast (Tracy). October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Andropogon maritimus (Small) 

Gulf Coast and Islands (Tracy). 

Andropogon Elliottii Chap. 

Saltillo ; Sessums ; Jackson ; Gulf Coast and Islands 
(Tracy). 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Andropogon subtenuis Nash. 
Sandy soil (Small). 

Andropogon argyraeus Schult. 

Southern pine belt Biloxi; Oxford. September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Andropogon provincialis Hackel. 
Starkville ; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Andropogon sericeus. 

^Starks\alle. Cultivated. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Andropogon furcatus Muhl 

Southern pine region (Hilg. Ms) ; Starkville ; Oxford. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

CHYRSOPOGON Trin. Indian Grass 

Chrysopogon avenaceus ]\Iichx. 

Perhaps throughout the state; Biloxi (Tracy). 

Chrysopogon serralatus 

Starkville. Introduced. 

A. & :\l. College Herb. 

Chrysopogon EUiotti Mohr (Andropogon nutans Ell.) 

Southern pine region; Covington Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Chrysopogon nutans linneanus DoeU. (A. nutans linneanum 
Hackel). 
Dry sandy soil (Small). 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 71 

SORGHUM Pers. 

Sorghum halapense (Ell.) Pers. (Holeus halapense Ell.) .Johii- 
sou Grass. 

(Int.) Over the state, ehiefly in the prairies. 

PASPALUM EU. 

Paspalum compressum Nees.__(P. platycaulon Poir.) Carpet 
Cra.ss. 

Hinds and Oktibbeha counties ; Crystal Springs ; Lake ; 
S"tarkville ; Ocean Springs ; Cat Island. 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

Paspalum paspalodes (.Michx) Scribn. (P. digitaria Poir) 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). May- June. 

Paspalum mucronatum Muhl. 
Columbus. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Paspalum membranaceum Walt. (P. Walterianum Schult.) 
Saltillo ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs ; Horn Island. Aug.-Sept. 

A. & ,M. College Herb. 
Paspalum conjugatum Bergius. 

Chiefly in Southern counties ; Starkville. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Paspalum drtichmn L. Joint Grass. 

Marshall, Oktibbeha and Hinds counties ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). June-August. 

Paspalum ciliatifolium ]\Iichx. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy.) 

Paspalum ciliatifolium dasyphyllum (Ell.) Chapm. (P. dasy- 
phyllum Ell.). 

Pine barrens (^lohr). July-September. 

Paspalum setaceum ^Nlichx. 

Dry sandy soil: Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Paspalum laeve ^liehx. 

Distributed over the state ; Starkville ; Lake ; Holmes Co. ; 
]Martin ; Biloxi. June-July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



72 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOaiCAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Paspalum Muhlenbergii Nash. 
Sandy fields (Small). 

Faspalum praecox Walt. (P. lentiferum Lam.) 

Starkville ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. May-June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Pa.spalmn praecox Curtisianum (Steud.) Vasey; (P. Curtisia- 
num Steud.) 

Low pine barrens and Coastal Islands (Tracy). June. 

Paspalum plicatulum JMichx. (P. undulatum Poir.) 

Starkville; Coastal regions and Islands (Tracy). June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Paspalum bifidum (A Bertol.) Nash (P. racemulosum Nutt.) 
Starkville; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Paspalum dilatatum Poir. (P. ovatum Nees). 

Central and southern counties ; Durant. June-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Paspalum Floridanum Michx. 

Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Starkville; Lake; Biloxi; Ocean 
Springs ; Ship Island. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Paspalum glabratum (Englm.) Mohr (P. Floridanum glabra- 
tum Englm.). 

Low pine barrens near the coast; Biloxi (Tracy). 

Paspalum laeviglumis Scribn. 

Moist soil. Summer and fall (Small). 

Paspalum altissimum Le Conte. 
Dry fields. Autumn (Small). 

Paspalum boscianum Fluegge (P. purpurascens Ell.) Bull 
Grass. 

Starkville; Newton; Ocean Springs; "Wilkinson iind Har- 
rison counties. August-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Paspalum amplmn Nash. 

Wet soil. Summer (Small). 

Paspalum taedum Nash. 

Summer and fall (Small). 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 73 

Paspalum Kearney! Nash. 

Dry soil. Autumn (Small). 

Paspalum larranagae Arechav, 
Warren and Hinds counties. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ANTHAENANTIA Beauv. 

Anthaenantia villosa (Michx.) Beauv. (Phalaris villosa Michx.) 
Sandy pine barrens; Biloxi (Tracy). August. 

Anathaenantia rufa (Ell.) Benth. (Panicum rufus Kunth). 
Low wet pine barrens. Biloxi (Tracy). June-July. 

ERIOCHLOA. HBK. 

Eriochloa annulata. 

Starkville. 

Eriochloa aristata. 

Starkville. 

Erichloa punctata (L.) Hamilt. 
Starkville. 



A. & M. College Herb. 
A. & M. College Herb. 



A. & M. College Herb. 

SYNTHERISMA Walt. Finger Grass. 

Snytherisma filiforme (L.) Nash (Panicum filiforme L.) Slen- 
der Crab Grass. 

Starkville ; Meridian ; Biloxi ; Coastal Islands. July-Oct. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Syntherisma suatina. 

Biloxi (Tracy). 

Syntherisma barbatum (Willd.) Nash. 

Sandy soil (Small). 
Syntherisma lineajris (Krock.) Nash. (Panicum lineare Krock) 
Smooth Crab Grass. 

Starkville; Biloxi (Tracy). September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



74 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bun. 

Syntherisma serotinum AValt. (Digitaria serotina Michx.) 
Hoary Crab Grass. 

Low open ground. Ocean Springs; Horn Island. Jnly-Oct. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Syntherisma humifusus (Pers.) Rydb. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Syntherisma sanguinale (L.) Nash. (Panicum sanguinale L.) 
Common Crab Grass. 

Distributed over the state. Coast, and Islands (Tracy). 

Geol. Sur. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Syntherisma fimbriatum (Link.) Nash. (Digitaria iimbriata 
Link;. 

Biloxi and Coastal Islands (Tracy). August-Sept. 

TRICHOLAENA Schrad. 

Tricholaena insularis (L.) Griseb. (Andropogon insularis L.) 
Starkville. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

ECHINOCHLOA Beauv. 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. 

Starkville ; Vicksburg ; Coastal Islands ; Bay St. Louis. 
July-September. 

All. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

PANICUM L. 

Panicum Texanum Buck. Texas Millet. 
Amite Co. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum stenode^ Griseb. (Panicum anceps striatum Chapm.). 
(Joastal region (Mohr) ; Biloxi; Ocean Springs; Horn Is- 
land. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum repens L. (P. arenarium Brot.). Creeping Panicum. 
Coastal regions and Islands (Tracy). July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 75 

Panicum littorale Mohr. (P. repens confertum Vasey). 
Coast and Coast Islands (Tracy). 

Panicum melicarium Michx. (P. hians Ell.) Gaping Panicum. 
Jackson; Lake; Enterprise; Coastal Islands (Tracy). June 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Impoverished Panicum. 

Attala Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Tishomingo Co.; Coast Islands. 

All. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum neuranthum Griseb. Nerved Panicum. 
Lake ; Ocean Springs. June. 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

Panicum angustifolium Ell. (P. sanguineum Wats.). 
Biloxi and Coastal Islands. May. 

A. & M. College Plerb. 

Panicum arenicola Ashe. 

Suutiiern pine region. Dry soil. (Small). ^lay-June. 

Panicum brachyanthum Steud. 
Wet soil (Small). Autumn. 

Panicum polycaulon Nash. 

Low pine lands. Summer. 

Panicum curtivaginum Ashe. 

Sandy soil (Small). Spring and summer. 

Panicum laxiflorum Lam. Loose-flovs^ered Panicum. 

Holmes Co.; Starkville; Crystal Springs; Grenada; Lake; 
Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. July. 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

Panicum consangnineum Kunth (P. villosum Ell.). 
Jackson. .March-July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum pjrriforme Nash. 

Damp sandy soil (Mohr). March. 
Panicum ciliatum Ell. (P. ciliatifolium Kunth). 

Sandy soil. Starkville. Summer. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



76 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Panicmn liliiferum Nash. 
Ocean Spring (Tracy). 

Panicum albomarginatum Nash. 

Sphagnum bogs near the coast. June. 

Panicum ensifolium Baldw. (P. nitidum ensifolium (Baldw) 
Chapm.) 

Panicum trifolium Nash. 

Sandy soil (Small). Spring and summer. 

Panicum lucidum Ashe. 

AVet shaded places (Small). May. 

Panicum curtifolium Nash. 

Sandy soil Type locality Ocean Springs (Tracy). July. 

Panicum paucipilum Nash. 

Wet soil (Small). Summer. 

Panicum parvispiculum Nash. 

Dry open woods (Small). April and May. 

Panicum Nashianum Scribn. Nash's Panic Grass. 

Avondale ; Biloxi ; Coastal Island (Tracy). Spriij.a. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum neonanthemum (perhaps P. nenranthum Griseb.). 
Biloxi (Tracy). 

Panicmn Roanokensis Ashe. 

Dry woods near the coast (Mohr). April-May. 

Panicum dichotomum L. Forked Panicum. 

Starkville; Durant; Meridian; Crystal Springs; Leake Co.; 
Lake; Biloxi; Poplarville ; Ocean Springs. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum nitidum Lam. 

Starkville; Crystal Springs; Biloxi; Horn Island. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 77 

Panicmn barbulatum Michx. (P. nitidum barbulatum Chapm.)- 
Bearded I'auicum. 

Open damp woods. Starkville; Morton; Wilkin^ion and 
Harrison counties. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. C. Herb. 

Panicum Wrightianmn Scribn. 

Sandy soil (Small). Summer and fall. 
Panicum pubescens Lam. Hairy Panicum. Ocean Springs 

(Tracy) ; Grenada. May. 
Panicum lanuginosum Ell. Woolly-stemmed Panicum. 
Biloxi. April-May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. Round-fruited Panicum. 

Oxford ; Starkville ; Holmes County ; Crystal Springs ; 
Lake ; Ocean Springs ; Gulfport. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb- 

Panicum polyanthes Schult. (P. microcarpon Muhl.) Small- 
fruited Panicum. 

North Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.); Saltillo (Tracy). May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum scoparium Lam. (P. scoparium major Vasey), 

Over the state in shady banks. Starkville ; Coastal Islands 
C Tracy). 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicmn oligosanthes Schult. (P. pauciflorum Ell.) 

Damp, light soil. Starkville; Madison; Ocean Springs; 
Horn Island. ]May-June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum viscidum Ell. (P. scoparium Michx.). 
Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.) July -August. 

A. & M. College Herb- 

Panicum halophilum Nash. 

Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy). Spring and fall. 



78 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Panicum scabriusculum Ell. 

Ocean Springs. April-]May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum commutatum Schiilt. 

Tishomingo Co.; Morton; Starkville ; Biloxi; Ocean 
Springs. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum Joorii Vasey. 

Damp woods. August-September. 

Panicum latifolium L. (P. AYalteri Poir.). 

Starkville; Coastal Islands (Tracy). June-September. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Panicum publifolium Nash. (P. latifolium ^Nlolle Vasey). 
Rocky woods (Small). Summer. 

Panicum Ashei G. Pearson. 
Tishomingo Co. 

All. Herb. 

Panicum clandestinum L. 

Durant; Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.). 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum xalopense HBK. 

Open damp woods. Morton. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Panicum capillare L. 

Starkville ; Lake. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum flexile Scribn. Wiry Panic Grass. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum ciliosum Xash. 

Dry soil (Small). Summer and fall. 

Panicum inflatum Scribn. & Smith. 
Sandy soil (Small.) Autumn. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 79 

Panicum erectifolium Nash. 

Wet soil (Small). Spring and summer. 

Panicum proliferum l^am. 

Perhaps over the state. Starkville; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Panicum Atlanticum Nash. 
Dry soil (Small). 

Panicum mutabile Smitli. 

Sandy soil (Small). Summer and fall. 

Panicum cognatum Schult. Autumnal Panic Grass. 

Northeastern prairies; Starkville. August-September. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Panicum verrucosum ^luhl. AVarty Panic Grass. 
Starkville ; ^Meridian ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum rostratum Muhl. Beaked Panicum. 
Biloxi; Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Panicum amarum Ell. Seaside Panic Grass. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Panicum anceps Michx. 

Durant : .Martin (Tracy). 

Panicum longifolium' Torr. 

Biloxi (Tracy). July-Oct. 

Panicum elongatum ramosior (Pursh., Mohr. 
Damp, cutivated ground (]\Iohr). 

Panicum agrostoides ^Mnhl. 

Starkville; Biloxi (Tracy). July-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum virgatum L. Switch Panic Grass. 

Starkville; Tupelo; Columbus; Biloxi; Coastal Islands 

Panicum crus-galli L. Barnyard Grass ; Coekspur Grass. 
Over the state. j\Iartin ; Horn Is. 

A. & ]\t. College Herb. 



80 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Panicum stipitatmn Nash. 

Howells Springs ; Lafayette Co. September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Panicmn Walteri Pursh. 

Lawrence Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Cat Island (Tracy). July. 

Panicum gibbum Ell. (P. Elliottianum Sehult.). Purple Pani- 
cum. 

Starkville ; Ocean Springs ; Leake Co. ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Panicum sphagTiicola Nash. 

Ocean Springs; Avondale (Tracy). 

OPLISMENUS Beauv. 

Oplismenus setarius (Lam.) Roe & Sehult. (Panicum setarium 
Lam.). 

Warren County ; Ocean Springs. July-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 
CHAETOCHLOA Scribn. 

Cheateochloa glauca (Setaria glauca Beauv.) Pigeon Grass. 
Holmes Co. ; Lake ; Starkville. July-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Chaetochloa glauca perennis Coit. 
Cat Island. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Chaetochloa glauca imberbis Chapm. 
Artesia ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Chaetochloa glauca laevigatum Ell. 
Horn Island. 

Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn. Green Foxtail. 

Throughout the state. Lafayette and "Warren counties. 
June-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 81 

Chaetochloa magna (Griseb.) Scribn. (Setaria magna Griseb.). 
Large Swamp .Millet. 
Coastal Islands and Gulf Coast (Tracy). July. 

Chaetochloa composita (H.B.K.) Scribn. 
Wilkinson Co. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

CENCHRUS L. Sandbur. 

Cenchrus tribuloides L. Common Sandbur. 

Oxford; Coastal plains and Islands (Tracy). July-Oct. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Cenchrus macrocephalus Scribn. Large Sandbur. 
Coast and Islands. July-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Cenchrus incertus .M. A. Curtis. Southern Sandbur. 
Coast and Coastal Islands. July-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

PENICILLARIA Beauv. 

Penicillaria spicata (L.) Willd. 

Waste places. Summer and fall (Small). 

STENOTAPHRUM Trin. St. Augustine Grass, 

Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. (Ischaemum secun- 
datum Walt.). 

Starkville and Coastal Islands (Tracy). June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

HYDROCHLOA Beauv. 
Hydrochloa fluitans (^lichx.) Nash (Zizania fluitans Michx.). 
Coastal pine regions (Mohr). 

LUZIOLA Juss. 

Luziola Alabamensis Chapm. 

Wet soil. Poplarville. Summer and fall. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



82 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

ZIZANIOPSIS Doell. and Aschers. 
Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michx.) D. & A. (Zizania miliacea Michx.) 
AVater Millet. 

Coastal regions; Ocean Springs. June-July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

HOMALOCENCHRUS Mieg. 

HomalocenclH"us Virginicus (Willd.) Britton. White Grass. 
Starkville ; Holmes Co. September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Homalocenchrus lenticularis (]\Iiehx.) Serbn. Catch-fly Grass. 
Marshes, AVestfield (Tracy). 

Homalocenchrus orj^zcides (L.) Pollich. Rice Cutgrass. 

Marshes. Throughout the state. Oxford; Columbus; 
Starkville. July-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

PHALARIS L. 

Phalaris canariensis L. Canary Grass. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Phalaris Caroliniana Walt. (P. Americana Ell.) Southern 
Canary Grass. 

Prairies to the Coast ; Madison Co. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

ARISTIDA L. 

Aristida dichotoma Michx. Poverty Grass. 

Holly Springs; Columbus; Artesia ; Coast and Coastal 
Islands. August-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Aristida purpurascens glaucissima. 
Handsl)oro (Tracy). 

Aristida oligantha ^lichx. 

Ury .soil. Lafayette Co. ; Tippah Co. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No, 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 83 

Aristida gracilis Ell. Slender Aristida. 

Starkvillc; Duraiit ; Pasoauoula ; ITorn Island. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Aristida intermedia Scribn. & Ball. 

Sandy soil. Summer and fall (Small. 

Aristida Chapmaniana Xasli. 

Dry sandy soil. Fall (Small). 

Aristida stricta Michx. Wire Grass. 

Stai'kviilc (Ti'aoy ) : Coastal region (Hilg. l\Is.). 

Aristida spiciformi^ Ell. Spike-tiov.ered Aristida. 

Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy) ; Mississippi City. Au- 
gust-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Aristida purpurascens Poir. 

Biloxi; Coastal Islands (Tracy). August-September. 

Aristida lanata Poir. (A. lanosa ^luhl.) Woolly Aristida. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). August-October. 

ANTHOXANTHUM L. 

Anthoxanthum pueUi. 

Starkvillc (Tracy). 



STIPA L. 

Stipa avenacea L. (Stipa barbata ]\Iichx.). Black Oat Grass. 
Columbus ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. April-May. 

A. & :\[. College Herl). 

MUHLENBERGIA Screb. Drop-Seed. 

Muhlenbergia trichopodes (Ell.) Elliott's Hair Grass. 

Biloxi and Coastal region. Fall. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
Muhlenbergia filipes Curtis. 

Sandy soil near the Coast. Fall (Small). 

Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. 
Columbus ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb 



84 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. Nimble Will. 
Starkville ; Holly Springs ; Durant ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

BRACHYELTTRUM Beauv. 

Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. (Muhlenbergia erec- 

ta Schreb.). 

Rich moist soil (Mohr). 

PHLEUM L. 

Phleum pratense L. 

Starkville, 

A. & M. College Herb. 

ALOPECURUS L. 

Alopecurus geniculatus L. (A. aristulatus Michx.) Water Fox- 
tail. 

Starkville (Tracy) ; Oxford. May. 

Alopecurus agrestis L. 

Waste places. Summer. (Small.) 

SPOROBOLUS R.Br. Drop-Seed Grass. 

Sporobulus Indicus (L.) R. Br. Smut Grass. 

Starkville; Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Sparobolus junceus (Michx.) Kunth. Purple Drop-Seed Grass. 
Columbus ; Meridian ; Black Hawk ; Ocean Springs ; Coastal 
Islands. September-October. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Sporobolus crjrptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Sporobolus Virginicus (L.) Kunth. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth. Rough Rush Grass. 

Holly Springs ; Starkville ; Columbus ; Lake ; Coastal Re 
gion. September-October. 

A. & M. College Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 85 

Sporobolus attenuatus Nash. 

Dry soil (Small). Autumn. 

Sporobolus longifolius (Torr.) Wood. 

Pine baiTcns near the coast (Mohr). October, 

Sporobolus canovirens Nash. 

Dry sandy soil (Small). Summer and fall. 

Sporobolus minor Vasey. 

Holly Springs. September-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Sporobolus vaginaeflorus tener Vasey. Sheathed Rush Grass. 
Starkville; Horn Island. October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

POLYPOGON Desf. 

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. (Alopecurus monspelien- 
sis L.). French Beard Grass. 
Starkville. June-July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

CINNA L. 

Clnna arundinacea L. Wood Reed Grass. 
Leake Co. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

CASTRIDIUM Beauv. 

Gastridium australe Beauv. 
Madison Station. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

AGROTIS L. 

Agrostis alba L. (Agrostis alba stolonifera Scribn.). White 
Bent Grass. 

Starkville. April-May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



86 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Agrostis vulgaris (A. alba vulgaris (With) Tliurber.) 
Holmes Co. ; Crystal Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Agrostis EUiottiana Scliult (A. araclmoides Ell.) Elliott':? 
Bent Grass. Eastern Counties. May. 

Agrostis hiemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. (A. scabra Willd.) Rough 
Hair Grass. 

Starkville ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. (Comucopiae pernnans 
Walt). Black Hawk; Starkville; Biloxi. October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Agrostis intermedia Scribn. Upland Bent Grass. 
Coastal regions; Biloxi. September-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Agrostis pulchella (Cult.) 
Starkville. 



Agrostis nebulosa (Cult.). 
Starkville. 

Agrostis minutifolia. 
Starkville. 



A. & M. College Herb. 



A. & M. College Herb. 



A. & :\I. College Herb. 



HOLCUS L. 



Holcus lanatus L. Velvet Grass. 

Yalobusha and Carroll Counties (Hilg. Ms.) ; Starkville 
(Tracy). May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Holcus halepensis L. 
Oxford. June. 

Geo!. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 87 

AIRA L. 

Aira capillaris Host. 

Oxford ; Kipley. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TRISETUM Pers. 

Trisetum flave^cens (L.) R. & S. 

Waste places (Small). Summer. 

ARRHENATHERUjM Beauv. 

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. (Aveua elatior L.) Tall 
Oat Grass. 

Starkville (Tracy). 

DANTHONIA DC. 

Danthonia sericea Nutt. (Avena spicata Ell.). Silky Wild Oat 
Grass. 

Damp, open woods. Columbus; Morton; Ocean Springs. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

CAPRIOLA Adans. 

Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze; (Cynodon dactylon Pers.). 
Bermuda Grass. 

Throughout the state. Newton; Starkville; Cat Island. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Capriola dactylon marltimus. 

Biloxi; Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

SPARTINA Schreb. Marsh Grass. 

Spartin?, gracilis Trin. 
Biloxi (Tracy). 



88 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Spartina polystachya (Michx.) Ell. (Trachynotia polystaeha 
Michx.) 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). July. 

Spartina uncea Ell. (S. patens (Ait) Muhl.) Salt Reed Grass. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-August. 

CAMPULOSUS Desd. 

Camuplosus aromaticus (Walt.) Scribn. (Ctenium American- 
um Spreng). . Toothache Grass. 

Damp sandy soil. Forrest, Jones Cos. (Harper). Lumber- 
ton, Biloxi. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

CHLORIS Sw. 

Chloris barbata (L.) Nash. 

Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Chloris Swartziana Doell. (Chloris petraea Sw.). 

Starkville ; Coast and Coastal Islands. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

GYMNOPOGON Beauv. 

Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) B. S. P. (Andropogon am- 
biguus Michx.). 

Starkville. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Gymnopog'on brevifolius Trin. (G. racemosus t'iliformis 
Chapm.). 

Starkville. Summer and fall. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 89 

SCIIEDONNARDUS Steud. 

Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trelease. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

BOUTELOUA Lag. 

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. (Chloris curtipendula 
Michx.). Grama Grass. 

Prairie regions northeast. Starkville. July-Augast. 

ELEUSINE Gaert. 

Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaert. Barnyard Grass. (Cynosurus In- 
die us L.). 

Oxford ; Starkville ; NeAvton ; Warren Co. ; Ocean Springs. 
June-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. Collebe Herb. 

Eleusine aegyptia Pers. 
Starkville ; Meridian. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. 

Leptochloa mucronata (^lichx.) Kunth. (Eleusine mucronata 
Michx.). Feather Grass. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv. 

Lafayette Co. ; Warren Co. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

DIPLACHNE Beauv. 

Diplachne fascicuJaris (Lam.) Beauv. (Festuca fasicularis 
Lam.). Many-Spiked Diplachne. 
Coastal Islands. June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

PHRAGI\IITES Trin. 

Phragmites phragmites (L.) Karst. (Phragmites communis 
Trin.). Reed. 



t)0 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Lafayette Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy). August October. 

SIEGLINGIA Bernh. 

Sieglingia purpirea (^^alt.) Kuntze (Triplaris purpurea 
Cliapm.). Sand Crass. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-September. 
Sieglingia Americana (Beauv.) Kuntze (Triplaris Americana 

Beauv.). Southern Sand Grass. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-September. 

Sieglingia Dnimmondii Scribn. & Kern. 
Dry soil (Small). Autumn. 

Sieglingia stricta (Nutt.) Kuntze (Windsoria stricta Nutt.). 
Narrow-spiked Sieglingia. 
Moist prairie soil. Starkville. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Seiglingia ambigua (Ell.) Kuntze (Tricuspis ambigua Chapm.). 
Round-Spiked Sieglingia. 

Along the coast (Tracy). July- August. 

Sieglingia sesleroides (Miehx.) Scribn. False Red Top. 
Perhaps throughout the state. Starkville. July. 

A. & M. College Herb 

KOELEREA Pers. 

Koelerea cristata (L.) Pers. (Aira crista L.). 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

ETONIA Raf. 

Etonia obtusata (Michx.) Gray (Aira obtusata Miehx.). Early 
Etonia. 

Starkville ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. April-May. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Etonia Pennsylvanica (DC) Gray. 
Starkville ; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 91 

Eatonia filiformis (Chapm.) Vasey (E. Pennsylvanica filifor- 
mis Cha})!!!.). Slender Etonia. 
Pine barrens. Biloxi. ^larch-April. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eatonia nitida (Spreng.) Nash (Aira nitida Spreug.). Slender 
Glossy Etonia. 

Starkville ; Columbus. June. 

A. & M. College^ Herb. 

ERAGROSTIS Beauv. 

''"agTOstis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. (Poa hypnoides Lam. 
Creeping ^leadow Grass. 

Starkville; Jackson; Leake Co.; Coastal Region (Tracy); 
Simpson Co. (Hilg. ^Is.). 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eragrostis EUiottii S. Wats. (E. nitida Ell.) 

Ocean Springs; Pascagoula; Horn Island; Cat Island. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eragrostis major (L.) Host (Briza eragrostis L.), Candy Grass. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv. (Poa pilosa L.). Slender Mead- 
ow Grass. 

Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eragostis secundiflora Presl. (Poa interrupta Nutt.). Purple 
Love Grass. 

Starkville; Coastal region and islands. July. 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

EragTO-.tis pectinacea (Mielix.) Steud. (Poa pectinata Michx.). 
Starkville; Holmes Co.; Biloxi; Ship Island. July. 

A. & :\I. College Herb. 

Eragrostis refracta (Muhl.) Scribn. (Poa refracta Muhl.). 
Starkville ; Ocean Springs ; Biloxi. September. 

A. & :M. College Herb. 



92 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

EragTostis Frankii Steud. 

Moist soil. Starkvillc. Fall. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

EragTostis lugens Nees. 

Dry soil near coast. Spring and summer. 

EragTostis ciliaris (L.) Link (Poa ciliaris L.). Fringed Eragros- 
tis. 

Waste places. Starkville; Meridian; Coastal region. Sep- 
tember. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

EragTostis glomerata (Walt.) Dewey (Poa glomerata Walt.). 
Jefferson Co. ; Starkville. July- August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

EragTostis hirsuta (]\Iichx.) Nash. 

Ocean Springs ; Coastal Islands. September, 

A. & M. College Herb. 

MELICA L. 

Melica mutica Walt. (M. glabra Michx.). Honey Grass. 

Damp, rich soil. Jackson; Starkville; Biloxi. j^^pril. ^ 
Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb 

UNIOLA^ L. 

Uniola paniculata L. (U. maritima Michx.) Sea Oats. 

Littoral in drifting sands. Gulf Coast and Coastal Islands. 

July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Uniola latiflora (Michx.) Broad-leaf Spike Grass. 

Damp shaded creek banks. Rankin and Madison Coun- 
ties (Hilg. Ms.); Tishomingo, Jones and Leake Counties; 
Starkville; Taylor. June- July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 
Uniola laxa (L.) B. S. P. (U. gracilis Michx.). Slender Spike 
Grass. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 93 

Damp, open woodlands. Oxford; Starkville; Jackson; 

Crystal Springs; Martin; Ocean Springs. July- September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Uniola longifolia Scribn. Long-leaf Spike Grass. 

Shady wet creek banks. Biloxi ; Coastal Islands ; Grenada 
County. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Uniola nitida Baldw. Smooth Spike Grass. 

Sandy creek banks. Biloxi; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

DISTICHLIS Eaf. 

Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (Uniola spicata L.) Marsh 
Spike Grass. 
Littoral. Ocean Springs ; Deer Island, and Coastal Islands. 

A. & M. College Herb. 
DACTYLIS L. Orchard Grass. 

Dactylis glomerata L. 

Fields and waste places. Starkville (Tracy). 

POA L. Meadow Grass. 

Poa laevis. 

Starkville. 
Poa arachnifera Torr. 
Starkville. 

Poa sylvestris A. Gray. 

Starkville. 



A. & M. College Herb. 



A. & M. College Herb. 

Poa annua L. Spear Grass. 

Widely distributed in the state. Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Poa Chapmaniana Scribn. (P. cristata Chapm.). Chapman's 
Spear Grass. 
Starkville. May-June. 

A. & M. College Herb 



94 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Poa compressa L. English Blue Grass. 

Northern parts of the state. Dry sandy loam soils. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Poa praten^is L. June Grass. Kentucky Blue Grass. 

(Cultivated chiefly). Limey soils. Starkville (Tracy). 
June. 

Poa autumnalis Muhl. (P. flexuosa Muhl.). Bending Spear 
Grass. 

Northern counties (Hilg. Ms.) ; Starkville. May. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

PANICULARIA Fabr. 

Panicularia Americana (Torr.) McM. (Poa aequatica Ameri- 
cana Torr.) 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

GLYCERIA R.Br. 

Glyceria nervata Trin. (Poa nervata Willd.) 

FESTUCA L. 

Festuca nutans AVilld. Nodding Fescue Grass. 
Tishomingo Co. ; Oktibehha Co. 

Allison Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Festuca capillata Lam. 

AVaste places (Small). Summer and fall. 

Festuca obtusa Spreng. 

Woods and thickets (Small). Summer. 

Festuca Shortii Kunth. 

Tipjjah Co.; Madison Co. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Festuca octofiora Walt. 

Dry, light soil. Tishomingo Co. ; Starkville ; Holly 
Springs; Ocean Springs. March-April. 

Allison Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS stt 

BROMUS L. 

Bromus ciliatus L. (B. pubcscens Muhl.). Wood Chess. 
St. Anthony Park. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Bromus madritensis (Cult.) 
Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Bromus racemosus L. Erect Chess. 

Throughout the state. Starkville ; Madison Co. May- 
June. 

Bromus tectorum L. 

Waste places. Spring and Summer (Small). 

A. & :\I. Colleg3 He.'b. 

Bromus secalinus L. Cheat or Chess. 

A weed throughout the state. Starkville (Tracy) ; Madi- 
son. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Bromus commutatus Sehrad. 
Lafayette Co. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eromus unioloides (Wilkl.) H. B. K. (Festuca unioloides 
Willd.) 

Over north half of the state. Oxford; Starkville. May- 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

LOLIU^I L. 

Lolium Italicum A.i^r. 

Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Lolium perenne L. Perennial Ray Grass. 
Starkville. 

A. & M. Colleg.i Herb. 

Lolium temulentum L. Poison Darnel. 

Starkville. 

A. & M. College Herb 



96 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

ELYMUS L. 

Elymus Virginicus L. (Elymus Carolinianus Walt.). Terrell 
Grass. 

Starkville; Coastal Islands (Tracy); Oxford (Lowe); Wi- 
nona (T. L. Bailey). 

Elymus Virginicus Australis (Seribn. & Ball.). Hitchcock. 
Oxford. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Elymus striatus Willd. Wild Rye. 

Carroll Co. (Hilg. Ms.). May- June. 

Elymus Canadensis L. 

Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.) Starkville Ocean Springs (Tracy). 
July. 

ARUNDINARIA Michx. Cane Reed. 

Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. (Arundo gigantea 
Walt.). Cane. 

River bottoms, especially abundant in the loess bluffs and 
the Mississippi Delta. May-June. 

Arundinaria tecta (Walt.) Muhl. (Arundinaria macrosperma 
suffruticosa Munro). Switch Cane Reed. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Distributed over the state along streams. Okolona; Jack 
son. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family. 
CYPERUS L. 

Cyperus ferax Vahl. Coastal Islands (Tracy). 
Operus diandrus Torr. Low Cyperus. 
Oxford. August. 

Cyperus flavescens L. Yellowish Cyperus. 
Lafayette Co. July-August. 



No. 17] FLOWERINCx PLANTS A\D FERNS 97 

Cyperus NuttalJii Kddy. NuttaH's Cyperus. 

Salt niai'slies aloiifj; the coast (Small). Au.uust-'^JctoDer. 

Cyperus microdontus Torr. (C. Texeiisis Stend.). Coast (y- 

Biloxi (Tracy). July-Se])teniber. 

Cyperus compressui L. Flat Cyperus. 

Simpson Co. (Hilg. jMs.). Along the coast (Tracyj. July- 
August. 

Cjrperus vegetus Willd. Thrifty Cyperus. 
Carroll Co. (Ililg. Ms.). July-August. 

Cyperus virens Miehx. Green Cyperus. 

Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy). June. 

Cyperus haspan L. (C. gracilis Muhl.). Sheathed Cyperus. 
Coast and Coastal region and Islands (Tracy). August- 
October. 

Cyperus multiradiatus (Torr.) jMohr (C. Le Contii Torr.). Le 
Conte's Cyperus. 

Drifting sands along the Coast and Islands (Tracy). June 
July. 

Cyperus articiilatus L. Guinea Rush. 
Coastal region and Islands (Tracy). 

Cyperus rotundus L. (C. hydra ]\Iichx.). Nut Grass. 

^lore or less over the state, especially abundant in parts 
of the ^Mississippi Delta. Lafayette, Warren and Hinds Coun- 
ties. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cyperus strigosus L. 

Starkville, Avest side (Tracy). July-September. 

Cyperus erythrorlii^os ]Mnhl. (C. tenuiflorus Ell.). Red-Eooted 
Cyperus. 

Swamps along the coast, and Islands (Tracy). August- 
September. 



98 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Cyperus cylindricus (Ell.) Britton. (^lariscus cylindricus Ell.). 
Pme Barren Cyperus. 

Starkville; Coastal region and Islands (Tracy). June- 
August. 

Cyperus retrof actus (L.) Torr. (Scirpus retrofaetus). 

Dry upland i)aslures and fields. Liberty ; Lafayette Co. ; 
Jasper Co. ; Rankin Co. Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cyperus filiculmis Yalil. (C. mariseoides Ell.). 

Dry sandy soil, (-hiefly southern counties. Lafayette Co. 
July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cyperus echinatus (P]ll.) Wood. (C. Baldwinii Torr.). 

Marion Co. (Hilg. Ms.). Coastal region (Tracy). Sept.- 
Oetober. 

KYLLINGA Rottb. 

Kyllinga pumila Michx. Low Kyllinga. 

Leake Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Biloxi. August-September. 

Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. (K. monocephala L.). Short-Leaved 
Kyllinga. 

Durant. October-November. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Kyllinga odorata Vahl. (K. sesquiflora Torr.) Fragrant Kyl- 
linga. 

Wet soil. Pascagoula. July-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

DULICHIUJM Pers. 

Dilichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton. (D. spathaceum Pers.). 
More or less throughout the state. Oxford. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ELEOCHARIS R.Br. Spike Rush. 

Eleocharis albida Torr. 
Horn Island. 

A. & M. College Herb 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS V>9 

Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. (Scirpus clictyopernnis Wright). 
Cellular Spike liush. 

roast;il roiiions; Oeeau Springs; Horn Island. July-St'ii:.. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eleocharis ochreata Nees) Steud. (Eleogenus ochrcatus Ncos). 
Pale Spike Rush. 

AVet soil, in the Coastal regions; Ocean Springs 

A. & M. College Herb 

Eleocharis olivacea Torr. Bright-Green Spike Rush. 
Ocean Springs. June-July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eleocharis ovata (Roth.) Roem. & Sehult. (E. obtusa Sehult.). 
Ovoid Spike Rush. 
Yalobusha Co. (Ililg. ^Is.). June-July. 

Eleocharis tortilis (Link.) Sehult. (Scripus tortili.s Liuk). 
Coastal region. Biloxi. June-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eleocharis tuberculosa (]\Iichx.) Roem. & Sehult. (Scirpus tu- 
berculosa Michx.). 

Central Mississippi (Ililg. Ms.); Biloxi; Ocean Springs. 
July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eleocharis microcarpa Torr. Small-fruited Spike Rush. 
Biloxi. July. 

A. & M. Collet-.' TI-i b. 

DICHRO.AIEXA Michx. 

Dichromena colorata (L.) A. S. Hitche. (D. leucocephala 
Michx.). 

Coastal region. Horn Island: Petit Bois Is. July-August. 
Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Dichromena latifolia Baldw. 

Biloxi: Picayune; Forrest Co. (Harper). July -August. 



100 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

PSILOGARIA i\Iichx. 

Psilocaria corymbiformis Benth. 
Horn Island. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl. 

Fimbristylis castanea Michx.) Vahl. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Fimbristylis spadicea (L.) Vahl. (Scirpus spadiceus L.). Brown 
Club Rush. 

Littoral. Coastal Islands; Dog Key. July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Fimbristylis laxa Vahl. 

Biloxi ; Coastal Islands. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Fimbristylis puberula (Michx. Vahl. (Fimbristylis spadicea 
puberula Chapm.). 

Along the coast (Mohr). April-July. 

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Sehult. (Scirpus au- 
tumnalis L.). 

Holly Springs ; Carrollton ; Black Hawk ; Ocean Springs ; 
Horn Island. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

STENOPHYLLUS Raf. 

Stenophyllus ciliatifolius (Ell.) Mohr. (Isolepis ciliatifolia 
Torr.j. 

Horn Island. September-October. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

SCIRPUS L. Club Rush. 

Scirpus carinatus (Hooker & Arn.) Gray (Isolepis carnata 
Hook. & Arn.). 

Coastal Counties (Mohr), 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 101 

Scirpus Americanus Pers. (S. pungens Vahl.). 

Lafayette Co. (Lowe); Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-Sep- 
tember. 

Scirpus cylindricus (Torr.) Britton (S. maritimus cylindricus 
ToiT.). 

Pine barren streams near the coast (Mohr). May-July. 

Scirpus Olneyi Gray. Olney's Bulrush. 

Southern counties to the coast; Clark Co. July-October. 

Scirpus lacrustis L. (Scirpus validus Vahl.). Large Bulrush. 
Throughout the state; Oxford; Newton. July- August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Scirpus robustus Pursh. (S. maritimus macrostachyus Miclix.). 
Salt-Marsh Bulrush. 
Along the Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy). July. 

FUIRENA Rottb. Umbrella Grass. 

Fuirena simplex Vahl. Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Fuirena scirpoidea Michx. 

Littoral. Biloxi (Tracy). July-August. 

Fuirena squarrosa i^Iichx. 

Rankin Co. (Hilg. IMs.) ; Lafayette Co.; Durant; Lake; 
Ocean Springs. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

HEMICARPHA Nees. & Arn. 

Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl.) Britton (Scirpus micranthus 
Vahl.). 

Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Belzoni; Coastal Islands. May- 
June. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

RYNCHOSPORA Vahl. Beaked Rush. 

Rynchospora Tracyi Britton. Tracy's Horned Rush. 
Pine barrens ponds (Small), Summer and fall. 



102 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Rynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray. (R. longirostris Ell.). 
Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Leak Co. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eynchospora pusilla Chapm. 

Along the coast ; Biloxi. August-September. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eynchospora divergens Chapm. (R. lamprosperma Sauv.). 
Southern pine barrens to the coast ; Biloxi. June-Aug. 

A. & M. Coi:e.ge Herb. 

Rynchospora aligantha Gray. 

Coastal region; Biloxi. May-June. 

A. & M. College H ;rb. 

. Rynchospora plumosa Ell. 

Coastal region ; Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. June. 

A. & M. College Hero. 

Eynchospora alba (L.) Valil. (Schoenus albus L.). 
Mississippi City (Tracy). August-September. 

Rhynchospora semiplumosa A. Gray. 
Biloxi ; Ocean Springs. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl. (Schoenus giomeratus L.). 
Biloxi; Ocean Springs (Tracy). July-September. 

Rynchospora glomerata paniculata (Gray) Chapm. (R. pani- 
culata Gray). 

Biloxi (Tracy). July-September. 

Rynchospora axillaris (Lam.) Britton. (R. cephalantha Gray). 
Pine barrens to the coast; Ocean Springs. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Rynchospora filifolia Torr. 
Harrison Co. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Rynchospora fascicularis (iMichx.) Vahl. (Schoenus fascicu- 
laris Michx.). 

Coastal region and Islands (Tracy) ; Biloxi. June- July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 103 

Eynchospora gracilenta liray. 

Coastal region ; Biloxi. August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Rynchospora Baldwinii Gray. 

iSuutlieni piuc region (JNIohr.). July-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eynchospora ciliaris (^lichx.) ]\lolir. 

Damp piuey woods ; Ocean Springs. July. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Rynchospora dodecandra Baldw. (R. megaloearpa Gray). 

Dry sandy soil near seacoast, and on Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). May-June. 

Ehynchospora cymosa (Willd.) Ell. (Schoenus cymosus Willd.) 
Light sandy soil. Horn Island. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Eynchosopora Toreyana Gray. 

Mississippi City (Tracy). August. 

Rynchospora rariflora (^lichx.) Ell. (Schoenus raritlorus 
Michx.). 

Coastal region; Deer Island. July-September. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Rynchospora microcaxpa Baldw. 
Ship Island ; Horn Island. 



A. & :\I. Colleire Herb 



Eynchospora compressa Carey. 
Biloxi (Tracy). 

Rynchospora caduca Ell. 
Ocean Springs. July. 



A. & M. College Herb. 



Rynchospora prolifera Small. 

Piney woods (Small). Summer. 

Rjmchospora inexpansa (Michx.) Vahl. (Schoenus inexpansus 
Michx.). 
Lake. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



104 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVE i^ [Bull. 

Rynchospora miliacea (Lam.) Gray. (Schoenus miliaceus Lam.). 
Wet shad}' places in the prairies (Mohr). Julj^- August. 

CLADIUM P.Br. Twig Rush. 

Cladium effusum (Sw.) Torr. (Schoenus effusus Sw.). Saw 
Grass. 

Coastal region and islands (Tracy). July-August. 

SCLERIA Berg. Nut Rush. 

Scleria hemitaphra Steud. 

Sandy swamps (Small). Summer and fall. 

Scleria trig-lomerata Michx. 

Coast and Islands (Tracy). June-July. 

Scleria Torreyana Walp. (Scleria laxa Torr.). 

Coastal region (Tracy). August-September. 

Scleria pauciflora glabra Chapm. 

Dry sands near the seashore. (Mohr). June. 

Scleiria Caroliniana AVilld. (S. Hirtella Michx.). 
Wet pine barrens (Mohr). June- July. 

Scleria gracilis Ell. 

IJ rifting sands along the shore (Tracy). June- July. 

CAREX L, Sedge. 

Carex riparia Curtis. 
Starkville (Tracy). 

Carex folliculata australis Bailey (C. folliculata Ell.). South- 
ern Long Sedge. 

Coastal regions along banks of streams (Tracy). May- 
June. 

Carex intumescens Rudge. (C. folliculata Wahl.). Bladder 
Sedge. 

Damp shady places. North Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.). 
April-May. 

Carex EUiottii Schw. & Torr. (C. castenea Ell.). Elliott's 
Sedge. 

Wet margins of streams (Mohr). April-May. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 105 

Carex turgescens Torrey; Pine Barren Sedge. 

AVet banks oi' pine barren streams (Tracy). April-May. 

Carex glaucescens Ell. Pale Sedge. 

Borders of pine barren streams; Biloxi (Tracy). 

Carex verrucosa Miihl. Warty-fruited Sedge. 
Wet soil (Small). Summer. 

Carex triceps ^^lichx. (('. viridula Schw. & Torr). Smooth 

Green Sedge. 

North Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.). 

Carex Caroliniana Schwein. (C. triceps Smithii Bailey). Caro- 
lina Sedge. 

Damp shady borders of woods (Mohr). April. 

Carex Cherokeensis Sc-hwein. (C. recurva ]Muhl.). Cherokee 
Sedge. 

Biloxi (Tracy). May-June. 

Carex oblita Steud. (C. glabra Boott.). Dark Green Sedge. 
Springy bogs (Small). May-June. 

Carex debilis pubera Gray (C. venusta Boott.). Elegant Sedge. 
Pine meadows (Mohr). May. 

Carex debilis prolixa Bailey. (C. debilis Boott.). 

Swampy banks of pine barren streams. April-May. 

Carex amphibola Steud. (C. cryptandra Schwein.) 
In prairie regions (Mohr). 

Carex granularis ^Iwhl. 

Prairie region (Mohr). 

Carex striatula ]^Iichx. (C. laxiflora Boott.) 

Woods and meadows (Small). Spring and summer. 

Carex digitalis Willd. (C. oligocarpa Muhl). 

Shaded rocky hillsides of northeast counties (Mohr). 

Carex Texensis (Torr.) Bailey. (C. rosea Texensis Torr.). 
Texas Sedge. 

Dry hills (Mohr). 



106 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Carex retroflexa Muhl. (C. rosea retroflexa Torr.) 
Coast and Islands (Tracy). June. 

Carex Muhlenbergii Sclik. 

Damp soil over the state. Spring. 

Carex Leavenworthii Dewey (C. cephalophora angustifolia 

Boott.). 

Springs and meadows (Small). June. 

Carex Atlantica Bailey. (C. stellulata conferta Bailey). East- 
ern Sedge. 

Wet stream banks in southern pine barrens (Mohr). May. 

Carex scoparia Schk. (C. scoparia minor Boott.) Hilg. Ms. 
Pointed Broom Sedge. In moist soil. June. 

Carex alata Torr. [C. straminea alata (Torr.) Bailey.] Broad- 
Winged Sedge. 
Swamps (Mohr). May. 

Carex reinformis (Bailey) Small. (C. straminea reinformis 

Bailey j. 

Kich alluvial soil (Small). Spring and summer. 

Carex tenuis Eudge. 

Bayou Graveline (Tracy). 

Carex gracillima Schwein. 

Meadows (Small). Spring and summ.r. 

Carex triangularis Boekl. 

Low prairies (Small). Spring and summer. 

PALMAE. Palm Family. 
SABAL, Adans. Palmetto 

Sabal minus (Jacq.) Pers. [S. Adansonii Guerns. ; S. glabra 
(Mill.j Sarg.j Dwarf Palmetto. 

Low ground in coastal region, and along streams ; Coastal 
Is. (Tracy); Ocean Springs; Bay St. Louis; Greenwood. 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



\o. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 107 

SERENOA Benth. & Hook. 
Serenoa serrulata (Michx.) Benth. & Hook. (Chamaerops 
scrulata Michx.) Saw Palmetto. 

Coastal regions and Islands ;Gulf port ; Picayune. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ARACEAE, Arum Family 

ACORUS L., Calamus or Sweet Flag. 
Acorus calamus L. 

In ponds. South Mississippi (Wailes) ; Lafayette Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ORONTIUM L. 

Orontium aquatic um L. Golden Club. 

In sluggish streams. Lafayette Co. ; Clarke Co. ; Amory ; 
De Kalb. March-April. 

Geol. Surv Herb. 

PELTANDRA Raf. 

Peltandra sagittaefolia (]\lichx.) Morong. (Calla sagittaefolia 
Michx.). Wild Calla Lily. 
Boggy borders of pine barren streams; Gulf Coast (]Mohr) 
July- An gust. 

Peltandra Virginica (L.) Kunth. (P. undulata Raf.). Green 
Arum. 

^Marshes and boggy places throughout the state. Oxford ; 
Lucedale. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ARISAEMA Mart. 

Arisaema triphyllum (Ij.) Torr. (Arum triphyllum L). In- 
dian Turnip. 

Throughout the state in rich shaded ground. Tishomingo 
Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Forrest Co. ; Carroll Co. : Smith Co. ; Sa- 

tai'tia on loess bluffs. New Albany; Ripley; Rosetta; Mead- 

ville. ]\Iay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



108 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Aresaema quinatmn Schott. (A. polymorphum Chapm.). 

Rich shaded moist slopes. Calhoun Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Oko- 
lona; Carroll Co. (bluffs); Smith Co.; Yazoo Co. (loess 
bluffs). April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Arisaema Dracontium (L.) Schott. (Arum Dracontium L.). 
Green Dragon. 

Rich shaded slopes of north and central ftlississippi. Ox- 
ford; Okolona; Starkville (Tracy); New Albany (Pontotoc 
Ridg-e) ; Jackson; Holcomb. (loess bluffs). Ripley; East- 
port ; West Point. ; Meadville. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

MAYACACEAE. Mayaca Family. 

MAY AC A Aubl. 

Mayaca Aubletii :\Iichx. (M. IMiehauxii Schott. & Endl.) May- 
aca. 

Shallow, sluggish streams and ponds in the pine barrens. 
Lumberton ; Waynesboro ; Picayune. June-July. 

XYRIDACEAE. Yellow-eyed Grass Family. 

XYRIS L. Yellow-eyed Gra^s. 

Xyris serotina Chapm. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). October. 

Xyris ambigna Beyr. (X. stricta Chapm.) 

Pine barren swamps near the coast. Ocean Springs. July- 
August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Xyris neglecta neglecta Small. 

Moist pine lands (Small). Summer and fall. 

Xyris flexuosa r^luhl. (X. bulbosa Kunth.). 

Wet sandy soil, chiefly in the southern counties. Leake 
Co. July-August. 

A. & M. College Herb. 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS lOi) 

Xyris Elliotti Chapm. 

Coastal region. Ocean Springs; Biloxi. July-October. 

A. & M. College Herb 

Xyris Caroliana Walt. (X. elata Chapm.). 

DeKalh; Leake Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Lumberton; Horn Island. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. A. & M. College Herb. 

Xyris platylepis Chapm. 

Ocean Springs ; Biloxi. 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Xyris iridifolia Chapm. 

Low pine barrens. Wayne Co. (Lowe). June-July. 

Xyris fimbriata Ell. 

Low coastal flats (Tracy). July-Sept. 

Xyris torta Smith (X. conocephala Sauv.). 

Biloxi ; Ocean Springs ; Horn Island. June. / 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Xjnris flabeUiformis Chapm. 

Low pine barrens (Small). Spring. 

Xyris Baldwiniana K. & S. (X. juncea Bald.). 

Borders of pine barrens swamps. Picayune. September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ERIOCAULONACEAE, Pipewort Family 
ERIOCAULON L. Pipewort. 

Eriocaulon decangulare L. 

Low wet pine barrens and marshes. Rankin Co. (Hilg. 
]\Is.) ; luka; Lost Gap; DeKalb ; Back Bay at Biloxi. July- 
October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eriocaulon septangiilare Withering. 

Wet .pine barrens (Hilg. Rep.) ; luka; Ocean Springs. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 



110 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull 

Eriocaulon Ravenelii Cliapni. 

Wet places; common at Walker's Lake, luka. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eriocaulon compressum Lam. (E. gnaphalocles Michx.) 

Boggy pine barrens swamps. Landon; Back Bay at Bi- 
loxi. May-Aug. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

LACHNOCAULON Kunth. 

Lachnocaulon anceps (AYalt.) I\Iorong; (L. ^Nlichauxii Kimth.) 
Damp soils in coastal belt. March-June (^lohr). 

BR0MSLI.:^C3AE Pine Apple Family 

TILLANDSIA L. Spanish Moss. 

Tillandsia usneoides L. 

Southern half of the state in deep damp forests, especially 
of alluvial plains along rivers. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

COMMELINACEAE. Spiderwort Family. 

COMMELINA L. Day Flower. 

Commelina Nashii Small. 

Sandy soil (Small). Summer and fall. 

Commelina nudiflora L. (C. communis Walt.) 

Damp soil throughout the state. Lafayette, Hinds and 
W^arren Counties ; Woodville ; Coastal Islands (Tracy) ; Simp- 
son County (Hilg. Ms.). Sept.-Nov. 

Geol. Sur\ . Herb, 

Commeiina erecta L. 

Dry sandy soil. Marion Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Lost Gap. Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Commelina hirtella Vahl. (C. erecta Gray). 

In wet shaded swamps. Lafayette, Warren and Holmes. 
Counties. August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS Hi 

Commelina Virginica T.. (C. angnstifolia ]\Tichx.) 

Common ou dry sandy soil. Oxford; Lost Gap; Hinds 
Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Geol. Survey Herb- 

TRADESCANTIA. Spiderwort. 

Tradescantia reflexa Raf. (T. canaliculata Raf.) 
Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey.) March-April. 

Tradescantia Virginica L. 

Common on dry sandy soil. Oxford; Jackson. May. 

Tradescantia incarnata Small. 

Sandy soil (Small)). Spring. 

Tradescantia pilosa Lehm. 

Rich, shaded sandy soil. Chunky ; Ripley. May-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerel Weed Family. 
PONTEDERIA L. Pickerel Weed. 

Pontederia cordata L. 

Sluggish streams and ponds. Coastal counties (Hilg. Ms.) 
April- July. 

PIAROPUS Raf. Water Hyacinth. 

Piaropus crassipes (]\Iart.) Britton. 

In floatinu' masses on sluggish streams and ponds. Com- 
mon in southern counties; Jefferson, Wilkinson, Lafayette coun_ 
ties. Coastal Regions. 

JUNCACEAE. Rush Family. 
JUNCUSL. Rush. 

Juncus effusus L. 

North :Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.) June. 

Juncus Roemerianus Scheele (J. maritimus Chai)m.) 
Along the Gulf Coast (Tracy). July. 



112 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Juncus tenuis Willd. (J. bicornis Michx.). ' 

Distributed over the state in damp soil. May-June. 

Juncus setaceus Rostk. 

Southern pine barrens to the Coast (Tracy). June. 

Juncus marginatus Rostk. 

Probably throughout the state. June (Coville). 

Juncus aristulatus Michx. [J. margnatus aristulatus (Michx.) 
Coville] . 

Coastal region and Islands (Tracy). June. 

Juncus repens Michx. 

Coastal regions and Islands (Tracy). Spring and summer. 

Juncus Torreyi Covi.le (J. nodosus megaeephalus Torr.). 
Perhaps over the state (Mohr).) July 

Juncus interior Wiegand. 

Dry woods and prairies (Small). Spring and summer. 

Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. 

Open prairies (Mohr)). June-July. 

Juncus scirpoides Lam. (J. echinatus Ell.) 

North Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.) Coastal region and Islands 
(Tracy). June. 

Juncus validus Coville. 

Sandy soil (Small). Summer and fall. 

Juncus trigonocarpus Steud. (J. eordatus Chapm.). 
Southern pine regions (Mohr. September-October. 

Juncus acuminatus ]\Iichx. 
Coastal regions (Tracy).) 

Juncus acuminatus debilis (Gray) Englm. (J. debilis Gray). 
Wet swamps (Small). June (Hilg. Ms.). 

JUNCOIDES Adans. 

Juncoides campestra (L. Kuntze ; J. campestris L.) Common 
Wood Rush. 

Distributed over the state. Lafayette, Benton, Tishomin- 
go counties. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 113 

LILLIACEAE. Lily Family. 

TOFIELDU Huds. False Asphodel. 

Tofieldia raceir.csa (Walt.) B. S. P. (T. pubesceus Pers.) 

Southern jine barrens. Waynesboro; Gulfport; Pica- 
yune. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CHAMAELIRIUM WiUd. Blazing Star. 

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray. (C. Colinianuni Willd ) Devil's 
Bit. 

Open wooded slopes of North Mississippi. Oxford; Rip- 
ley; Fulton; ^Meadville. ^lay-June. 

CHROSPERMA Raf. Fly Poison. 

Chrosperma muscaetoxicum (AValt.) Kuntze. (Amianthium 

museaetoxic'uiu (Jrayj ,). 

Rich moist woods. Toomsuba. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ZYGADENUS Miclix. 

Zygadenus glaberrimus ^lichx. 

Sandy swamps. Oxford ; McHenry ; luka ; Lost Gap ; Pica- 
yune. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Zygadenus leimanthoides (Gray) Wats. (Amianthium leiman- 
thoides (xray) ). 

Swamps. Landon; Michigan City; Hattiesburg; Boone- 
ville. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

STENANTHIUM Kunth. 

Stenanthimn gramineum (Ker-Gawl) Morong. (S. angustifol- 
ium Kunth.) 

North Mississippi (Hilg. Ms.) 



/ 
114 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

UVULARIA L. Bellwort Family. 

Uvularia grandiflora, J. E. Smith. 

Eicli shaded damp soils. Toomsuba ; New Albany ; Ponto- 
toc ; Ripley ; Hatchie Hills. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Uvularia perfoliata L. 

Throughout North Mississippi. Oxford ; Tishomingo Co. ; 
Jackson ; Southern Hinds. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Uvularia sessilifolia L. (Oakesi a sessifolia Wats.). 

AVet shaded places. North Mississippi; Lafayett-j, Tishi- 
mingo and Hinds Counties; Pontotoc; Ripley; Fulton; Michi- 
gan City. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ALLIUM L. Onion. 

Allium Canadense L. AYild Garlic. 

Throughout the state. Jackson. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Allium mutabile jMiclix. Wild Onion. 
Hattiesburg. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Allium arenicola (Small). 

Damp sandy soil (Small). Spring. 

NOTHOSCORDUM Kunth. 

Nothoscordum bivalve (L) Britton (N. straitum Kunth.). Yel- 
low False Garlic. 

Throughout the state. Lafayette, Hinds, Warren and 
Jones Counties. March-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

T^IUSCARI Tourn. Grape Hyacinth. 

Muscari botryoides Mill. (Adv.) 

North Mississippi, escaped from gardens. Oxford. March- 
April. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 115 

Muscari racemosa Mill. (Adv.) 

Oxl'oiel ; Can-: lltoii. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

OKXlTIIOliALUxM Tourn. Star of Bethlehem. 

Omithogaluin umbellatum L. (Xat.). 
North ^Mississippi. March. 

YUCCA L. 

Yucca filamentosa L. Bear Grass. 

Throughout the state. Oxford; Hinds County; Wood- 
ville. June. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Yucca aloifolia L. Spanish dagger. 

Common about old dwellings throughout the state. June- 
July. 

Yucca gloriosa L. Spanish Bayonet. 

In sandy soil in the southern counties ; Coastal Islands 

(Tracy) ; Meadville. May- June. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Yucca recurvifolia Salisb. 

Coastal Islands (Small). Spring and summer. 

POLYGONATUM Adans. Solomon's Seal. 

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. (Convallaria biflora Walt.) 
Small Solomon's Seal. 

North ^lississippi. Lafayette, and Itawamba counties; 
New Albany ; Ripley. April-May. 

Geol. Survey. Herb 

Polygonatum commutatum (Roem & Schult.) Dietr. (P. gigan- 
teum Dietr.). 

Rich shaded slopes. North ^Mississippi. Ripley; Eastport. 
April-May. 



116 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CBull. 

VAGNERA Adaus. False Solomon's Seal. 

Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong. (Smilacina racemosa Desf. 
Northern half of the state. Lafayette, Tishomingo, Mad- 
ison Counties. May-Jun.e 

Allison Herbarbium. 

ASPARAGUS Tourn. 

Asparagus officinalis L. (Adv.) 

Escaped from gardens throughout the state. June. 

LILIUM L. 

Lilium Carolinianum ]\Iichx. (L. superbum Carolinianum 
Chapm.) Southern Spotted Lih'. 

Dry open woods. Meridian ; Utica ; Brookhaven ; Mead- 
ville;. Hattiesburg; Laurel; Taylorsville ; DeKalb. June- 
July. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Lilium Catesbaei Walt. Catesby's Lily. 

Lovr damp pine barrens. Taylorsville ; Shubuta ; McHen- 
ry. July. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Lilium superbum L. Turks Cap Lily. 
Hattiesburg; Laurel. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

QUAMASIA Raf. 

Quamasia esculenta (Ker-Gawl) Coville. (Camassia Fraseri 
Turr.j. Wild Hyacinth. 

Central prairie region. Montrose ; Jackson. April. 

Geol. Survey. Herb 

NOLINA Michx. 

Nolina Georgiana Michx. 

Dry pine barrens. Wiggins. April-May. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 117 

MEDEOLA L. 

Medeola Virginiana Tj. Indian Cucumber. 

Low shaded woods. Northern half of the state. Oxford ; 
Ackerman ; Booneville ; Itawamba Co. May. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

TRILLIUM L. 
Trillium grandiflorum Salisb. 

Kicli woods near the Tennessee River. Eastport. May. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

(Found in only one locality, at the base of Tennessee River 
bluff, — may be specifically distinct from gTiinditiora. ) 

TriUum sessile L. Wake Robin. 

Kieh shaded woods. Tishomingo, Lafayette, Union coun- 
ties, Hinds Co., Pontotoc Co. March. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Trillium Underwoodii Small. 

Iiieh damp woods. Jackson. April-j\Iay. 

Geol. Survey. Herb. 

Trillimn viride Beck. (T. viridescens Nutt.) 
Rich woods and glades (Small). 

Trillium stamenium Harb. 
Rocky woods (Small). 

Trillium Ludovicianmn Harb. 

Low rich woods (Small). 

Trillium recurvatum Beck. (T. recurvatum lanceolatum Wats.") 
Low rich woods. Pontotoc; New Albany; Eastport; 
Charleston; Taylor. March-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ALETRIS L. 

Aletris farinosa L. (A. alba Michx.) White Star Grass. 

Low wet ;^round throughout the state; most abundant in 
the southern counties. Lost Gap. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



lis MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Aletris aurea AValt. Golden Star Grass. 

LoAv wet pine barrens. Leake Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Lum- 
berton ;Biloxi ; Lost Gap ; IMeadville. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Vignera racemosa (L.) ^lorong (Smilacina racemosa Desf.) 
^loist open woods and copses north half of the state. Tish- 
omingo Co.; Oxford; JMadison (Allison) ; Ripley; New Alba- 
ny : Jackson. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Allison Herb. 

SMILACACEAE Vent. Smilax Family. 

SMILAX L. 

Smilax herbacea L. (Coprosmanthus peduncularis Kunth.) 
Carrion Plant. 

In open woods in the northern counties; Oxford; Ripley; 
Starkville (Tracy) ; New Albany. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Smilax ecirrhata (Engelm.) Wats. (Coprosmanthus ccirrhata 
Engelm.) 

Dry open woods of northern counties. April-a\Iay. 

Smilax glauca Walt. Glaucous Greenbrier. Sarsaparilla. 

Found throughout the state. Starkville (Tracy) ; Oxford; 
Ripley. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Smilax rotundifolia L. (S. quadrangulata Willd.) Low Bamboo 
Brier. 

Starkville (Tracy); Tishomingo Co. (Allison); Oxford; 
Benton Co. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Smilax cinnamomifolia Small. 
Southern Hinds County. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Smilax pseudo-china L. False China-Root. 

Low damp ground. Northern counties. April. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 119 

Smilax bona-nox L. (S. hastata Willd.) Bamboo Brier. 

Dry sanely soil. Ripley; Hinds Co.; Pascagoula; Stark- 
villc: Dufajit; Coastal Islands (Tracy). April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 
Smilax auriculata Walt. (S. ovata Ell.) 

Along the eoast; Coastal Islands. April-May. 

Smilax laurifolia L. Baj^-leaf Bamboo. 

Southern pine regions to the coast. Hattiesburg. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Smilax Walter! Pursli. (S. caduca Ell.) Coral Smilax. 
Pine woods. Oxford. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb 

Smilax lanceolata L. (S. ovata Pursh.) Sweet-scented Smilax. 
IjOw^ wooded lands. May-June. 

Smilax hispida I\luhl. 

Damp thickets. South ]\Iississippi (Wailes' Report) ; Ok- 
olona. 

Geol. Survey Herb 

HAEMODORACEAE. Blocdwort Family. 
GYROTHECA Salisb. 

Gyrotheca capitata (Walt.) ^lorong. (Laehnanthes tinctoria 
Ell.) Red Root. 

Southern pine barrens to the coast. Picayune. Aug.-Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family. 
ATAMOSCO Adans. Ataniosco Lily. 

Atamosco atamasco (L.) Green (Amaryllis atamasco L.) 

Central and southern counties to the coast. Shubuta; 
Nugent: Smith Co. March-April. 

Geol. Survev Herb. 



120 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

HYMENOCALLIS Salisb. Spider Lily (Le Conte). 

Hymenocallis occidentalis Kunth (Pancratium occidentale Le 
Conte.) 

Scattered over the state in shaded sv;amps. Michigan City ; 
Taylorsville. May-June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hymenocallis rotatmn Kunth. (Pancratium rotatum Ker- 
Gawl.) 

Swamps and marshes. Oxford. April-I\Iay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CRINUM L. 

Crinmn Americanum L. 

Southern counties to the coast. Ocean Springs (Tracy) ; 
Lay St. Louis ; Pascagoula. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

HYPOXIS L. Star Grass. 

Hypoxis hirsuta Coville (H. erecta L.) 

Open woods throughout the state. Oxford: Tisliomingo 
Co. ; Morton. March- April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 
Hypoxis juncea Smith. 

Lamp pine barrens. Landon. Spring. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

LOPHIOLA. Ker-Gawl. 

Lophiola Americana (Pursh.) Covillei (Lophiola aurea Ker- 
Gawl.) 

Low pine barrens near the coast. Leakesville ; Landon ; 
Gulfport ; Picayune : Back Bay at Biloxi. June-July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

AGAVE L. American Aloe. 

Agave Virginica L. 

In dry woods throughout the state. Oxford; New Al- 
bany ; Tishomingo Co. ; Okolona ; Jackson ; Amory ; DeKalb. 
May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 121 

DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family. 

DIOSCOREA L. Wild Yam. 

Bioscorea villosa L. 

Tlirong'liout the state in open woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Ok- 
olona ; New Albany : Oxford ; Jackson. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

IIIIDACEAE. Iris Family. 
IRIS L. 

Iris versicola L. Blue Flag. 

Throughout the state in marshy ground. Tunica. April- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Iris hexig-ona Walt. (I. Virgmica :\Iichx.) Southern Blue Flag. 
Marshes in the coastal zone. April. 

Iris verna L. Dwarf Iris. 

Very common in southern pine belt. Lost Gap; Collins; 
"Wayne Co. ; Jones Co. ]\larch-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Iris cristata Ait. Crested Iris. 

Wet seeps on limestone ledges of tlie Tennessee River. Tish- 
omingo Co. Pontotoc; Ripley; Fulton; Grenada. April 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

GBMMINGIA Fabr 

Gemmingia Chinensis (L.) Kuntze [B.elameanda Chinensis (L.) 
D. C.J Blackberry Lily (Int.) 

Common about homesteads and roadsides. Oxford ; Utiea. 
July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

SISYRIXCHIUM L. Blue-eyed Grass. 

Sisyrinchium flexile Bieknell. 

Along the coast (Small.) Spring. 



122 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Sisyrinchium graminoides Bi k. (S. anceps Wats.) 
Coastal pine i)elt. Liloxi. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb 

Sisyrinchium Tracyi Eich, 

Wet sandy lands in the southern counties. (Small). 

Sisyrinchium capillare Bick. 

Coastal pine barrens. Mohr). April. 

Sisyrinchium mucronatum ]\Iichx. 

Central prpairie regions. Jacl?son ; Morton. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Sisyrinchium corymbosum Bick. 

Sandy pine barrens. Gulfport. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sisyrinchium. nanum Bick. 

Coastal regions. Landon. April-May. 

Sisyrinchium scoparium Bick. 

Coastal regions. April (Small). 

Sisyrinchium implicatum Bick. 

Wet bottom lands. Calhoun Co. (Small). 

Sisyrinchium capillare Bick. 

Low sandy pine barrens. Pascagoula. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sisyrinchium campestre Bick. 

Damp open woods. Oxford. Spring. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sisyrinchium fuscatum Bick. 
Damp sandy soil. April. 

Sisyrinchium albidum Raf. 

Rich moist shaded hill slopes. Grenada Co.; Okolona; Ox- 
ford; Jackson. April. . 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sisyrinchium fibrosum Bick. 

.Moist woods. Spring (Small), 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 123 

Sisyrinchimn tortum Hielc. 

Saiuly soil (Small). Spring. 

BURMANNIACEAE. Eurmannia Family. 

BURMANNIA L. 

LBurmannia biSora L. (Tripterella eoerulea Nutt.) 

Coastal regions. October-November. (A. Allison). 

Burmannia capitata :\Iart. (Tripterella capitata Michx.) 

AVet pine barrens along the coast. Bay St. Louis. Octo- 
ber-November. 

Allison Herb. 

ORCHIDACSAE. Orchid Family. 

CYPKIPEDir:\I L. Lady's Slipper. 

Cypripedium hirsutum ]\Iill. (C. pubescens Willd.) 

Oxford; Eipley; Tishomingo Co; Columbus; Hatchie 
Hills in Prentiss Co. April-May, 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cypripedium parviflorum Salish. (C. calceolus Michx.) 
Open woods. May. 

HABENARIA Willd. Wood Orchis. 

Habenaria habenaria. 

Damp ])ine barrens. Gulf port. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria clavellata (IMiehx.) Spreng. (H. tridenta Hook.) 
Wet shady woods. Oxford; Rocky Ford; Waynesboro; 
Tylertown: Wiggins; McHenry; Fulton; DeKalb. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria nivea Spreng. (Orchis nivea Nutt.) 

Damp pine barrens. W^aynesboro ; Wiggins. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria cristata R. Br. (Orchis cristata Michx.) 

Over the state in wet shady places. Fulton: Lumberton; 
Picayune : Meadville. August. 

Geol. Survev Herb. 



124 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Habenaria ciliaris (L.) K,. Br. (Orchis ciliaris L.) Yellow 
fringed orchis. 

Over the state in edges of marshes. Oxford ; Taylorsville ; 
Picayune ; Fultoii ; Meadv.Ue. June-August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria blepharig-lottis Torr. (Orchis blephariglottis Willd.) 
Swampy places, central pine region to the coast. Lauder- 
dale Springs; Nugent; Mississippi City. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria peramoena Gray. (Orchis incisa Pursh.) 
Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Oxford (Bailey). July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria quinqueseta Michx. (H. Michauxii NuttJ 
Central pine belt. Decatur. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Habenaria repens Nutt. Creeping Orchis. 

Borders of swamps near the coast. (Mohr). October. 

POGONIA Juss. 

Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker-Gawl. Snake-mouth. 

Scattered over the state bordering open marshes ; more 
common toward the coast. luka ; Landon. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Pogonia divaricata (L) R. Br. (Arethusa divaricata L.) 

Perhaps throughout the state in open marshes. Chunky ; 
Landon. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Pogonia verticillata Nutt. (Arethusa vertieillata Willd.) 

Fulton ; Rocky Ford ; Booneville ; Toomsumba ; Meadville. 
March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Pogonia pendula. 

.Moist shady places along spring branches. Taylorsville. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 125 

GYROSTACHYS Pers. Ladies Tresses. 

Gyrostachys gracilis Kimtze. (Neottia gracilis Bigelow.) 

Perhaps over the state. Jackson ; Lost Gap. April June. 

Gyrostachys praecox (Walt) Kuntze. (Spiranthes praeeox 
Gray). 

Found sparingly throughout the state. Oxford ; Jackson 
(T. P. Bailey.) May -June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Gyrostachys odorata Kuntze (Spiranthes odorata Lindl.) 
Damp woodlands along streams. October. 

ACHROANTHES Raf. Adder's Mouth. 

Achroanthes unifolia (Miehx.) Raf. (Michrostylis ophioglos- 
soides Nutt.) Green Adder's Mouth. 

Low shaded banks along streams. Oxford ; Winona ; Lost 
Gap; Lucedale ; DeKalb; Itawamba Co.; ^Meadville. July- 
August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CORALLORHIZA R. Br. Coral Root. 

Corallorhiza Wisteriana Conrad. 

Upland woods. New Albany. August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

TIPULARIA Nutt. Crane-Fly Orchis. 

Tipularia unifolia (]Muhl.) B. S. P. (Tipularia discolor Nutt.) 
Rich shaded woods in northeastern counties. Itawamba 
Co. ; Booneville. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

LIMODORU]\I L. Grass Pink. 

Limodorum tuberosum L. (Calopogon pulchellus R. Br.) 

Open spring}- places or marshes. Lafayette Co. ; Tisho- 
mingo Co. ; Landon ; Winona ; Lost Gap. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb 



126 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Limodorum parviflorum (Lindl.) Nash. (Calopogon parviflor- 
us Lindlj. 

Low Avet pine barrens. Picayune ; Gulfport ; Lyman ; Lan- 
don. ^March-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

HEXALECTRIS Raf. 

Hexalectris aphyllus (Nutt.) Gray (Bletia aphylla Nutt.) 

Tliroughout the state in oak woods. Rocky Ford ; Oxford ; 
Utica ; Meridian. July- August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

EPIDENDRUM L. 

Epidendrum conopsemn R. P>r. 

Epiphytic on large magnolias and live oaks in dense low 
forests near the coast (Mohr). July. 

DICOTYLEDONES 

ARCHICHLAMYDEAE. 

SAURURACEAE. Lazird's-tail Family. 

SAURURUS L. Lizard-tail. 

Saururus cernuus L. 

Occurs throughout the state in svramps and marshes. Ox- 
ford ; Jackson ; Bay St. Louis. June-Aug. 

Allison Herbarium. 

JUGLANDACEAS. Walnut Family. 

JUGLANSL. Walnut. 

Juglans cinera L. Butternut. 

On rich upland soils. Not common. Tippah Co. ; Union 
Co. ; DeSoto Co. ; Booneville ; Carrollton. 

Geol. Survev Herb. 

Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. 

Throughout the state in rich soil. Lafayette Co. ; Tishomin- 
go Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Clarke Co. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 127 

IIICORIA Raf. Hickory. 

Hicoria pecan (Marsh) Britton (Carya olivaeformis Xutt.) 
Pecan. 

Common in the Mississippi Delta and the loess bluffs. 
Greenwood. Yazoo Co. ; Warren Co. 

Carya laciniosa (^Michx. F.) Lond. King Nut. 
Eiver bottoms (A. B. Hurt). 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton (Carya alba Nutt.) Scaly Bark. 
Common in northern part of the state. Mostly on low- 
lands. Lafayette Co. ; New Albany ; Pontotoc. 

Hicoria alba Britton. (Carya tomentosa Nutt.) Mockernut. 
Occurs throughout the state. Rare in southern pme belt. 

Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Britton. (Carya porcina Nutt.) Pig Nut 
Hickory. 

Lowlands throughout the state. Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds 
Co. ; Amite Co. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb, 
Allison Herb. 

Hicoria myristicaeformis (]Michx.) ) Britton. (Carya myris- 
ticaeformis Nutt.) 

Rather rare. ]\Iost common in the loess bluffs. Yazoo Co. 

Hicoria minima Britton. (Carpa amara Nutt.) Bitternut. 

Sparingly over the northern half of the state, on low 
ground. 

Hicoria pallida (Carya pallida) 

Not common ; mostly on rich uplands. Taylor. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hicoria aquatica Britton. (Carya aquatica Nutt.) Water 
Hickory. 

Low sw^amps and overflow lands of the Mississippi and its 
larger tributaries. Lafayette Co. ; Holmes Co. ; West Point. 
I\rav. 



128 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

MYRICACEAE. Wax Myrtle Family. 

MYRICA, L. Wax Myrtle. Candle Berry. 

Myrica cerifera L. (Myrica cerifera aboreseens Michx.) 

Frequent on low pine barrens near the coast. Pascagoula ; 
Meadville ; Lost Gap : Biloxi. February. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Myrica pumila Small (M. cerifera pumila Michx.) 

Damp open pine barrens. Back Bay near Biloxi. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Myrica Carolinensis IMill. (M. cerifera media Michx.) 

Coastal regions in pine barrens swamps. Lyman. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Myrica inodora Bartram. Wailes' Report. Feb.-March. 

SALICACEAE. Willow Family. 

POPULUS L. Poplar, or Cottonwood. 

Populus deltoides ^Nlarsh. (P. monilifera Ait.) 
Common over the state on river floodplains. 

Populus alba L. "White or Silver Poplar. 

An introduced tree common in yards, but escaped, and 
rather common around settlements. 

Populus heterophylla L. 

On low lands of southwest counties. Wilkinson Co. Feb. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

SALIX L. Willow. 

Salix nigra ]\Iarsh. Black Willow. 

Common throughout the state on river alluvium and about 
springs. Lafayette ; Hinds. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Salix humilis Marsh. (S. longirostris Michx.) 

, On low moist soils. Lafayette Co. ; Tishomingo Co. April- 
May. 

Geol. Survev Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS • 129 

Salix longifolia. 

Tishomingo Co. (A. Allison) ; Starkville (Tracy). 

BETULACEAE. Birch Family. 

CORYLUS L. Hazelnut. 

Corylus rostrata Ait. Beaked Hazelnut. 

Rich wooded slopes and copses. Meadville. March-April. 

Corylus Americana Walt. Common Hazelnut. 

Dry woodland slopes. Tishomingo Co. ; Tippah Co. ; La- 
fayette Co. ; Itawamba Co. ; ^Michigan City ; Meadville. ]March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

BETULA L. Birch. 

Betula nigra L. (B. rubra ^lichx.) River Birch. 

Common along streams. Lafayette Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; 
Carroll Co. ; Chimky ; Greenwood ; Hattiesburg. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ALNUSGaertn. Alder. 

Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Koch. (A. serrulata Willd.) 

Common on low wet stream banks throughout the state. 
Lafayette Co. ; Tishomingo Co. February. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

CARPINUS L. Ironwood. 

Carpinus Caroliniana Walt. (C. Americana Michx.) 

Throughout the state on rich loAver slopes and alluvial 
lands. Tishomingo Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Amite Co. ; 
Hattiesburg; New Albany. ]\Iay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

OSTRYA Scop. Hop Hornbeam. 

Ostyra Virginiana (Mill.) Willd. (0. Americana Michx.) 

Rich lower woodland slopes and stream bottoms. Tisho- 
mingo Co. ; Pontotoc Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Amite 
Co. April-]\Iay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



130 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

FAGACEAE. Beech Family. 
FAGUS L. Beech. 

Fagus Americana Sweet. (F. ferrugineaAit.). 

On bottom lands over the state. Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; 
Lafayette Co. ; Amite Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

CASTANEA Adans. Chestnut. 

Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh. C. vesca Americana Michx.) 
American Chestnut. 

Light soil on uplands ; most common in the northern coun- 
ties. Lafayette and Tishomingo Counties. New Albany; 
Ripley ; Futon. May-June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Castanea pmnila Mill. (Fagus pumila L.) Chinquapin. 

Rich upland slopes. Most common on loess bluffs of 

southwestern counties. Itawamba ; Hinds ; Warren ; Amite 
counties ; Pascagoula ; Grenada ; DeKalb ; Woodville. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

QUERCUS L. Oak. 

Quercus alba L. White Oak. 

Over the state on low ground. Lafayette, Grenada, Tish- 
omingo Counties ; Bay St. Louis. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus minor Sarg. (Q. stellata Wagenh.) Post Oak. 

Over the state on dry uplands. Tishomingo, Lafayette, 
Hinds, Amite Counties; Bay St. Louis. April. 

Allison Herb. 

Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. 

Low stream bottoms. Lafayette, Tishomingo, Leflore 
Counties : Warren Co. ; Amory ; Rosetta. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 131 

Quercus prinus L. ((^. montana Willd.) Rock Chestnut Oak. 
Only found in the extreme northeastern counties. Com- 
mon on the sandstone bluffs of Bear Creek, Tishomingo Co. ; 
on high rocky divides of Itawamba, Alcorn and Tippah 
Counties. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Quercus acuminata. Sarg. (Q. Muhlenbergii Englm.) Chestnut 
or Yellow Oak. 

On rich upland soils, especially where derived from limey 
formations. Oxford ; Grenada ; Holcomb, on loess bluffs ; 
Sataria, on loess bluffs : New Albany, on Pontotoc Ridge ; 
Clarke County, on limey soils east of Shubuta ; Woodville, on 
loess bluff's. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Quercus Michauxii Nutt. (Q. prinus Michauxii Chapm.) 

On low alluvial grounds throughout the state. Lafayette 
Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Yazoo Co. ; Amite Co. ; Hattiesburg on Leaf 
River ; Grenada ; Rosetta ; Picayune. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus brevilobata (Torr.) Sarg. (Q. Durandi Buckl.) Pin Oak. 
Limestone prairie soils ; loess bluff's. West Point ; Brook- 
ville ; Roberts ; Shubuta ; Natchez. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Quercus austrina Small. 

Low lauds. Central Mississippi (Sargent). 

Quercus nigra L. (Q. aquatica Walt.) Water Oak. 

On alluvial soil and rich moist slopes throughout the state. 
A very common and beautiful tree. Lafayette Co. ; Grenada 
Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Hattiesburg ; Bay St. Louis. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus Virginiana oMill. (Q. virens Ait.) Live Oak. 
Southern counties ; more common near the coast. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Quercus geminata Small. 

Sandy soil near the coast and coastal Islands ; Cat Island. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



132 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOaiCAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Quercus Texana Buckl. Texan Oak. 

A common oak on low rich soil. Lafayette, Yazoo, War- 
ren, Hinds and Clarke Counties. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Quercus rubra L. Bed Oak. 

Common on sandstone bluffs. Bear Creek, Tishomingo 
County; bluff of Bull Mountain Creek in Itawamba Co.; 
New Albany ; Taylor ; Waynesboro ; Amite Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus velutina Lam. (Quercus eoccinea tiuctoria Gray.) 
Black Oak. 

Throughout the state. Amite Co. ; Bay St. Louis ; Oxford ; 
New Albany ; Jackson. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus catesbaei Alichx. Turkey Oak. 

Sandy soil ; long leaf pine region. Moss Point ; Bay St. 
Louis; MeHenry; Hattiesburg; Meridian; Jones Co.; Wayne 
Co. 

Quercus digitata Sudworth. (Q. faleata Michx.) 
Throughout the state. Bay St. Louis. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Quercus pagddaefolia Ashe. (Q. pagodaefolia Ell.) Spanish 
Oak. 

A very common and handsome tree throughout the state. 
Mostly on uplands. Tishomingo Co.; Oxford; New Albany; 
Amite Co. ; Bay St. Louis. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus Marylandica ^lueneh. (Q. nigra Wangenh.) Black Jack. 
Over the state in sterile uplands. Tishomingo Co. ; La- 
fayette Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Lauderdale Co. ; Bay 
St. Louis. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus laurifolia I\Iichx. (Q. phellos laurifolia Chapm.) 
Laurel Oak. 

Southern half of the state on low ground. Okolona; 
Waynesboro ; Hattiesburg. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERI^S 133 

Quercus phellos L. Willow Oak. 

Throughout the state on low ground. Lafayette Co. ; 
Hinds Co. ; Amite Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Queicus myrtifolia Willd. (Q. plielios arenaria Chapm.) ^lyrtle 
Oak. 

]jittoral, Mississippi City. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Quercus imbricaria Miehx. Shingle Oak. 

Starkville (Tracy).) 

Quercus brevifolia Sarg. (Q. cinerea Miehx.) Upland Willow 
Oak. 

Dry upland sandy soil in southern pine belt to the coast. 
Jones Co. ; Covington Co. ; Wayne Co. ; Forrest Co. ; Moss 
Point ; Bay St. Louis ; IMeridian. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Quercus hybrida (Chapm.) Small. 
Sandy upland soils. (Small). 

Quercus Comptonae Sarg. Compton's Oak. 
Loess'bluffs. Natchez; Yazoo City. 

ULMACEAE. Elm Family. 

ULMUS L. Elm. 

Ulmus crassifolia Xutt. 

Along streams; Not common (Small). Autumn. 

Ulmus Americana L. American Elm. 

Rather common throughout the state. Lafayette Co. ; 
Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Chickasaw Co. February. 

Ulmus alata Miehx. Wahoo. Winged Elm. 

Throughout the state. Moist woodlands. Lafayette Co. ; 
Tishomingo Co. ; Holmes Co. ; Hinds Co. February. 

Geol. Survev Herb. Allison Herb. 



134 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Ulmus fulva Michx, (U. pubescens Walt.) Slippery Elm. 

Low rich bottom lands. Lafayette Co. ; Chickasaw Co. ; 
Tippah Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. February. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

PLANERA Gmel. The Planer-Tree, or Water Beech. 

Planera acquatica (Walt.) Gmel. (Anonymos acquatica Walt.) 
On low wet flood plains of the larger streams. Taylor. 
February. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CELTIS L. 

Celtis Mississippiensis Bose. (C. laevigata Walt.) Southern 
Hackberry. 

Prairies and river bottoms. Tishomingo Co. ; Benton Co. ; 
Chickaksaw Co. ; Noxubee Co. ; Warren Co. ; Clarke Co. ; 
northern Hinds Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry. 

Starkville (Tracy). 

MORACEAE. Mulberry Family. 

TOXYLON Raf. 

Toxylon pomiferum Raf. (^Madura aurantiaea Nutt.) Osage 
Orange. (Int.) 

Throughout the state about habitations. April. 

I\IORUS L. Mulberry. 

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. 

Common over the state on low ground. Tishomingo Co. ; 
Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. . 

URTICACEAE. Nettle Family. 

URTICA L. Nettle. 

XJrtica gracilis Ait. (U. procera Willd.) Common American 
Nettle. 

Damp shaded places, perhaps throughout the state. Tisho- 
mingo Co. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 135 

Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle. 

About dwellings and hedgerows throughout the state. 
Common. July. 

Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh. (U. purpurascens Nutt.) 

Pascagoula. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ADICEA Raf. Clear Weed. 

Adicea pumila. (Pilea pumila Gray.) Clear AVeed. 

About shaded boggy springs throughout the state. La- 
fayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Eastport. 

BOEHMERIA Jacq. 

Boehmeria cylindrica Willd. (Urtica cylindrica L.) False 
Nettle. 

Throughout the state in damp boggy woods. Tishomingo 
Co. ; Tippah Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Bay St. Louis. July, 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

LORANTHACEAE. Mistletoe Family. 
PHORADENDRON Nutt. Mistletoe. 

Phoradendron flavescens Nutt. (Viscum flavescens Pursh.) 
Throughout the state, growing parasitic upon trees, mostly 
oaks. February. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SANTALACEAE. Sandalwood Famliy. 
COMANDRA Nutt. 

Comandra mnbellata (L.) Nutt. (Thesium umbellatum L.) 
Rare and local in northern counties. In upland oak woods. 
Oxford. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



136 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LBull. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Btrthwort Family. 

ARISTOLOCHIA L. 

Aristolochia serpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. 

In low damp woods. Oxford ; West Point ; Vicksburg ; 
Hattiesburg; Madison Co.; Rosetta; Lost Gap; New Albany; 
Ripley. (Hilg. Ms.). May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Aristolochia tomentosa Sims. Dutchman's Pipe. 

River bottoms ; Pearl River bottom at Jackson. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ASARUM L. Wild Ginger. 

Asarum Virginicum L. 

Rich shaded slopes. Fulton ; Booneville. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Asarum Canadense L. 

Rich shaded slopes along the Tennessee River, in Tisho- 
mingo Co.; Pontotoc Ridge at Ripley; New Albany. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

HEXASTYLIS Small. Wild Ginger. 

Hexastylis arifolium (]\Iichx.) Small 

Rich shaded slopes. Common in the southern counties, 
Hattiesburg. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hexastylis Ruthii (Ashe) Small. 

Rich low ground. Hattiesburg. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family. 
KUMEX L. Dock. 

Rumex acetosella L. 

Dry soil throughout the state. Tishomingo Co.; Oxford; 
Jackson; Gulf port. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 137 

Rumex verticillatus L. 

Open swamps and ditches. Greenwood. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Rumex crispus L. 

In open pastures throughout the state. May-June. 

POLYGONUM L. Knotweed. 

Polgonum aviculare L. , 

Yards and gardens; common. May. 

Polygonum maritimum L. (P. aviculare littoral Chapm.) 
Along the coast. August-September. 

Polygonum hydropiperoides jNIiehx. (P. mite Pers.). 

Open wet ground throughout the state (Hilg. Ms.) Tracy. 
July. 

Polygonum erectum L. 

Starkville (Tracy). June. 

Polygonum puctatum Ell. (P. acre H. B. K.). Smart Y\'"eed. 
Open wet ground. July-October. Amite Co. ; Bay St. 
Louis. 

Allison Herb. 

Polygonum Pennsylvanicum L. 

Damp open soil throughout the state. Jackson (T. P. 
Bailey) ; southern Hinds Co.; Lafayette Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygonum Virginianum L. 

Over the state in low swamps. Copiah Co.; AVarren Co. 
July-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygonum sagittatum L. 

INIarshes and springs. Oxford. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygonum convolvulus L. Bind Weed. 
Waste places. June-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



138 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Polygonum persicaria L. Ladies' Thumb. 

Open damp pastures and fields. June-October. 

Polyg-onmn cristatum Engelm. 
Over the state. 

POLYGONELLA Miehx. Joint Weed. 

Polyg"onella polygama Gray (P. parvifolia Michx.). 
Dry sands along the coast. Cat Island. October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygonella gracilis Xees. (Polygonum gracile Nutt.). 
Littoral; Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Polygonella Americana Small (P. ericoides Engelm. & Gray.) 
Sandy soil. Southern Hinds Co. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BRUNNICHIA. Banks. 

Brunnichia cirrhosa Banks. Ladies' Ear Drops. 

Common on stream banks. Grenada; Winona; Jackson 
July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHENOPODIACEAE. Goosefoot Family. 
CHENOPODIUM L. Pigweed. 

Chenopodium album L. Lamb 's Quarter. 

In gardens and fields throughout the state. A common 
weed. 

Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. 

Ruderal throughout the State. July-September. 

ATRIPLEX L. Orache. 

Atriplex cri';tata H. B. K. 

Coastal Islands, Door Point. Spring to fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS r6'3 

Atriplex arenaria Nutt. (Obione arenaria Moq.). 

Beach or sand Orache. Sand beaches. Petit Bois Island. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DONDIA Adans. Sea-blite. 

Dondia linearis (Ell.) Millsp. (Suaeda linearis Moq.). Sea 
Blight. 

Littoral. Sandy beaches along the Gulf Coast and Islands. 
July. 

SALICORNIA L. Glasswort. 
Salicornia Bigelovii Torr. (S. mucronata Bigel.). 

Salt marshes on Coastal Islands (Lloyd & Tracy). July- 
August. 

Salicornia herbacea L. 

Salt marshes of Coastal Islands. Door Point, Chandeleur 
Islands. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SALSOLA L. Saltwort. 
Salsola Kali L. (S. Caroliniana Bigelow). 

Sandy beaches. Coast and islands ; Horn Island. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family. 

AMARANTHUS L. Amaranth. 

Amaranthus retroflexus L. Pig AVeed. 

Cultivated ground throughout the state. Oxford; Jack- 
son. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Amaranthus hybridus L. (A. chlorostachys hybridus Gray), 
(int.). 
Common in cultivated ground over the state. July-Oct. 

Amaranthus spinosus L. 

A common weed in cultivated ground over the state. Ox- 
ford; Hinds Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy). July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



140 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

FKOELICHIA. Moench. 

Froelichia Floridana (Nutt.) Moq. (Oplotheca Floridana Nutt.) 
Di\y sands of beach. Coast and Coastal Islands. Beau- 
voir (Tracy); Bay St. Louis (A. Allison); Horn Island, 
Petit Bois Island. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

BATIDAE. Batis Family. 
BATIS P.Br. 

Batis marititna L. Saltwort. 

Salt marshes along the coast and Islands. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeweed Family. 
PHYTOLACCA L. Pokeweed. 

Phytolacca decandra L. 

Rich damp soil in open ground throughout the state. 
September-October. 

NYCTAGINACEAE. Four o'clock Family. 

ALLIONIA Loefl. Umbrella-wort. 

Allinonia albida AValt. (Oxybaphus albida Chois.) 
Dry hill soils (Mohr). July-September. 

Allionia decumbens (Nutt.) Rydb. 

Dry sandy soil. (Small). Spring and summer. 

AIZOACEAE. Carpet Weed Family. 
MOLLUGO L. Carpet Weed. 

Mollugo verticillata L. 

In cultivated grounds around dwellings. Throughout the 
state. Oxford; Winona; Jackson. June-Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 141 

SESUVIUM L. Purslane. 

Sesuvium portulacastrum. Sea Purslane. 

Coastal regions and islands. Pascagoula ; Door Point, 
Chandeleur Islands. December. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Sesuvium maritimum (Walt.) B. S. P. (S. pentandrum Ell.). 
Salt water jxjoIs and marshes along the coast; on sandy 
beaches (Mohr). August. 

PORTULACACEAE. Purslane Family. 
PORTULACA L. 

Portulaca oleracea L. 

In gardens and cultivated grounds throughout the state. 
May-September. 

CLAYTONIA L. Spring- Beauty. 
Glaytonia Virginica L. 

In open woods and pastures. Lafayette Co.; Holmes Co.; 
Oktibbeha Co. ; Okolona ; New Albany ; Shubuta. April- 
• May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ALCINACEAE. Pink Family. 
SCLERANTHUS. 

Scleranthus annus. 

Coast Islands (Tracy). 

AGROSTEMMA L. 

Agrostemma githago L. 

Waste lands; not common. Oxford. June. 

SILENE L. Campion. 
Silene stellata (L.) Ait. Starry Campion. (Cucubalus stellata 
L.). 

Rich shaded banks and slopes. More common in the north- 
ern part of the state. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. : New 
Albany; Ripley; Michigan City; Hatchie Hills; jNIadison Co.; 
Waynesboro. July- August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



142 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Silene Virginica L. Indian Pink. 

Dry sandy uplands. Lafayette Co.; Grenada Co.; New 
Albany; DeKalb ; Eipley. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silene ovata Pursh. Kound Leaf Silene. 

Rich shaded slopes. Hatchie Hills ; Alcorn Co. Spring. 

SAPONARIA L. 

Saponaria officinalis L. Soapwort. (Adv.). 

Escaped from gardens all over the state. July. 

VAC C ARIA L. Cow-herb. 

Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britton (Saponaria vaccaria L.) Adv. 
Occasionally found in cultivated ground. Oxford. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SAGINA L. Pearlwort. 

Sa^gina decumbens (Ell.) Torr. & Gray. (Spergula decumbens 
Ell.) 

Damp pastures. Oxford and CarroUton. April. 

Geol. Surv; Herb. 

Sagina decumbens Smithii (Gray) Wats. (S. subulata Smithii 
Gray). 

Dry sandy soil. Southern counties (Mohr). April. 

ALSINE L. Chickweed. 

Alsine media L. Start wort-Chickweed. (Stellaria media Smith.) 
Found throughout the state in moist open lands. Febru- 
ary-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Alsine pubera (Michx.) Britton. Hairy Starwort. (Stellaria 
pubera ]\Iichx.). 

Rich woods in northeast counties. Tishomingo Co. (Alii 
son). May- June. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 143 

ARENARIA L. Sandwort. 

Arenaria lanuginosa Rohrb. (Arenaria diffusa Ell.). 

Thickets and moist woods. Most frequent toward the 
coast (iMohr.) Seen once at West Point. 

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 

In moist ground around dwellings. Oxford. May. 

TISSA Adans. Sand Spurry. 

Tissa marina (L.) Britton. (Arenaria rubra marina L.). 

Sandy beaches along the coast. Petit Bois Island. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CERASTIUM L. Mouse-ear Chickweed 

Cerastium viscosum L. 

Common throughout the state in open lands. Oxford; 
New Albany ; Jackson. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cerastium vulgatum L. (Cerastium triviale Link.). 

Common in open damp soil throughout the state. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

STIPULICIDA Michx. 

Stipulicida setacea Michx. 

Coastal region and islands (Tracy). April-June. 

Stipulicida filiformis Nash. 

Sandy soil (Small). Spring and summer. 

SIPHONYCHIA Torr & Gray. AVhitlow-wort. 

Siphonychia erecta Chapm. 

Sands along the coast and islands. July- August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Siphonychia corymbosa Small. 
Coastal islands (Tracy). 



144 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

NYMPHAECEAE. Water Lily Family. 
NELUMBO Adans. Sacred Bean. 

Nelumbo lutea (AYilld.) Pers. (Nelumbium luteum Willd.) 
lu deep still water throughout the state. May-June. 

BRASENIA Schreb. Water Shield. 

Prasenia purpurea (Michx.) Casp. (Hydropeltis purpurea 
Michx). 

Throughout the state in still water. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CASTALIA Silisb. Pond Lily. 

Castalia odorata Salisb. (Nymphaea odorata Dryand.). Sweet 
sCented AYater Lily. 
Throughout the state in deep still water. April- June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb, 

Castalia tuberosa. 

Deep still water. Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

NYMPHAEA L. Yellow Pond Lily. 

Nymphaea sagittifolia Walt. (Nuphar sagittifolia Pursh.). 
Southern counties to the coast (Mohr). June-July. 

MAGNOLIACEAE. Magnolia Family. 

MAGNOLIA L. 

Magnolia foetida (L.) Sarg. Magnolia. (M. grandiflora L.). 
Common forest tree in loAvlands. Rare in northern coun- 
ties. Hinds Co. ; Amite Co. : Port Gibson ; Hattiesburg ; 
AYoodville : Vicksburg ; Picayune. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Magnolia Virginica L. (Magnolia glauea L.). Swamp Bay, 
or Sweet Bay. 

Common on ]oav marshy ground; not common in the loess 
region. Bay St. Louis; Landon; Hattiesburg; Tishomingo 
City ; Lost Gap ; Woodville ; Fulton. :\Iay June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 145 

Magnolia acuminata L. Cucumber Tree. 

Common in tlie hill region of northeast ^lississippi. East- 
port ; Sartaiia; Wayne Co.; Warren Co.; Adams Co.; New 
Albany. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Magnolia acuminata cordata (^lichx.) Sarg. (M. cordata 
Michx.). 

On lowlands. W^arren Co. ; Wayne Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Wil- 
kinson Co. ^lay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Magnolia tripetala L. (M. umbrella Lam.). Umbrella Tree. 
Hill regions of northern Mississippi. (^lohr). May. 

Magnolia Fraseri Walt. (]\1. auriculata Lam.) Eraser's Mag- 
nolia. 

Pearl River valley (Mohr). 

Magnolia macrophylla (Michx.) Large Leaf Magnolia. 

A small tree common on rich slopes. Winona; Vaiden; 

Satartia ; ^Meridian ; Lost Gap ; Rosetta ; Woodville. April- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

LIRIODENDRON L. Tulip Tree. 

Liriodendron tulipifera L. 

Throughout the state on rich slopes and second bottoms. 

Tishomingo Co. ; Pontotoc Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Amite Co. ; 
Hancock Co. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

ILLICIU:\I L. Star Anise. 

Illicium Floridanum Ellis. 

Southern pine region to the coast. Lauderdale Co. ; Jones 
Co.; Hattiesburg; Tylertown; Bay St. Louis; Picayune. 
March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



146 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

SCHIZANDRA Miehx. Sarsaparilla Vine. 

Schizandra cocinea Miehx. 

Rich lowland woods in southern half of the state. Hinds 
Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Wilkinson Co. June. 

ANONACEAE. Custard Apple Family. 

ASIMINA Adans. Papaw. 

Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (Anona triloba L.). 

Throughout the state in rich lowland woods. Tishomingo 
Co. ; Itawamba Co. ; Union Co. ; Hinds Co. ; "Warren Co. ; Oko- 
lona ; Bay St. Louis. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Asimina parviflora Dunal. 

Low lands in the southern counties. Hinds, Yazoo and 
Clarke Counties. Fulton ; Grenada ; Lost Gap ; Amory. April. 

RANUNCULACEAE. Buttercup Family. 

ZANTHORHIZA L'Hert. 

Zanthorhiza apiifolia L'Hert. Shrub Yellow Root. 

Rich shaded creek banks. Tishomingo City; Itawamba 
Co. ; Booneville ; Columbus. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ACTAEA L. Baneberry. 

Actaea alba (L.) Mill. (A. spicala alba L.) White Baneberry. 
Rich shaded slopes, mostly in limey soil. Ripley; Eastport; 
Hatchie Hills; Booneville; Pontotoc; Toomsuba; Vicksburg. 
Not common. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CIMICIFUGA L. Bugbane. 

Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. (Actaea racemosa L.) Black 
Cohosh. 

Rich shaded slopes of extreme northeastern counties. 
Bluffs of Tennessee River near Eastport ; Booneville ; Colum- 
bus ; Ilatehie Hills. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 147 

DKLPIIINIUM L. Larkspur. 

nelphinium Carolinianuin Walt. (D. azureanum Michx.). Blue 
Fjarkspur. 

Open pastures and copses on clay soil. Jackson. April- 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Delphinium virescens (Nutt.). Green Larkspur. 

Dry rocky uplands of Tennessee hills. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Delphinium consolida L. Common Larkspur. 

Escaped from eultivation. Common around Oxford. May- 
June. 

Delphinium urceolatum Jacq. (D. exaltatum Ait.j. Tall Lark- 
spur. 

Edges of woods. Southern counties (Hilg. Ms.). June. 

ANEMONE L. Wind Flower. 

Anemone Canadensis L. Canada Anemone. 

Starkville (Tracy); Tishomingo Co. (A. Allison). 

Allison Herb. 

Anemone Caroliniana AValt. Prairie Anemone. 

In open pastures. Local and infrequent. Has been col- 
lected only at Oxford and at Jackson. ]\Iarch-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Anemone Virginiana L. Virginia Anemone. 

Edges of thickets and woods. Common in northern half 
of state. Starkville (Tracy); Oxford; New Albany; Madi- 
son; Fulton; Ripley; Pontotoc; DeKalb. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HEPATICA Scop. Liverwort. 

Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst (H. triloba Chaix.) 

Rich wooded slopes of northeast hills. Limestone bluffs 
along Tennessee River near Eastport. ^March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



148 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Hepatica acutiloba D. C. 

lu places similar to the last, but more widely distributed 
in the state. Eastport; Meridian; Toomsuba. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SYNDESMON. Hoffing. 

Syndcsmon thalictroides (L.) Hoffmg. (Anemonella thalic- 
troides (L.) Spach.] 

Rich shaded slopes. Eastport; Pontotoc; Itawamba Co.; 
Oxford; Chunky; DeKalb; Meridian; Taylorsville. April- 
May. 

CLEMATIS L. 

Clematis Vixginiana L. Virgin Bower. 

More or less common on lowlands throughout the state. 
Lafayette Co.; Hinds Co.; Heidelberg; Rodney (Dr. Pervi- 
ance). Michigan City. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Clematis Catesbyana Pursh. 

Sandy soil (Small). August. 

Clematis viorna L. Leather Flower. 

Lowlands bordering streams. Lafayette Co. ; Chunky. 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Clematis cri'^pa L. (C. cylindrica Sims). Blue Clematis. 

Low swamps along streams. Okolona ; West Point ; Jack- 
son ; Waynesboro. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

IMYOSURUS L. Mouse Tail. 

Myosurus minimus L. 

Common in damp open pastures and fields. Tishomingo 
Co. ; Oxford. Perhaps throughout the state. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 149 

RANUNCULUS L. Crowfoot or Buttercup. 

Ranunculus pusillus Poir. (R. fiammula Walt.j. 

Edges of open marshes throughout the state. Oxford; 
Jackson; Tishomingo Co.; Newton; Paseagoula. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. 

Damp rich thickets and woods. Lafayette Co. ; Tishomin- 
go Co. ; Ripley. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. (R. nitidus AValt.). 

Damp open grounds and fence rows throughout the state. 
Lafayette and Tishomingo Counties ; New Albany ; Taylor ; 
Jackson. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ranunculus septentrionalis nitidus (Poir) Chapm. 

Trailing in low swamp land. Okolona. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ranunculus fascicularis ^luhl. 

Common in damp open pastures throughout the state. 
Tishomingo Co. ; Oxford ; New Albany ; Shubuta. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ranunculus parviflorus L. (R. trachyspermus Ell.). 

Common in open lands around dwellings. Tishomingo Co. ; 
Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. April. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Ranunculus apricus Greene. 

Moist pine barrens (Small). Winter and spring. 

THALICTRUM L. Meadow Rue. 

Thalictrum purpurascens L. (T. rugosum Pursh.). 

On low moist shaded places in the northeastern counties. 
Tishomingo Co. ; Ripley ; West Point ; Pontotoc ; Fentress, in 
Choctaw Co. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb 



.150 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Thalictrum macrostylum (Schutt.) Sm. & Hell. 
Leaf River near Hattiesburg. Spring. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BERBERIDACEAE. Barberry Family. 

PODOPHYLLUM. Mandrake or May Apple. 

Podophyllum peltatmn L. 

Low shaded ground throughout the state. Oxford ; Tish- 
omingo Co. ; Ripley ; Pontotoc ; Jackson. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family. 
CEBATHA Forsk. 

Cebatha Carolina (L.) Britton (Menispermum Caiolinuni L.). 
Carolina Moonseed. 

Perhaps throughout the state, climbing over bushes and 
hedgerows. Oxford; Jackson; Starkville (Tracy); jMadison 
Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Warren Co. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CALYCOCARPUM Nutt. Cup Seed. 

Calycocarpu-m Lyoni (Pursh.) Gray (]\Iemispermum Lyoni 
Pursh.). Cup Seed. 

Climbing over bushes along stream banks. Tippah, Attala 
and Carroll Counties (Hilg. ]\Ls.) ; Starkville (Tracy) ; La- 
fayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Copiah Co. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

BUTNERIACEAE. Calycanthus Family. 
BUTXERIA Duhamel. Calycanthus. 

Butneria Florida (L.) Kearney (Calycanthus Floridus L.). 

Ill open woodlands. Fulton; Booneville ; Columbus; For- 
rest Co. April. 

Butneria fertilis (Walt.). Kearney. (Calycanthus fertilis for- 
tilis Walt.). 

In moist open woods. Ocean Springs (Tracy). 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 151 

LAURACEAE. Laurel Family. 
PERSEA Gaetn. Red Bay. 

Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. (P. Carolinensis Nees.) Red Bay. 
Alluvicil Swamps. Lawrence Co. (Hilg. Ms.) June. 

Persea pubescens (Pursh.) Sarg. (P. Carolinensis pubescens 
Pursh.). 

Swamps and ponds in pine barrens to the coast; Coaslgl 
Islands (Tracy). 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SASSAFRAS. Nees & Eberm. 

Sassafras sa-^safras (L.) Karst. (S. officinale Nees. & Eberm.). 
Sassafras. 

Light upland soil. Very common throughout the state. 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BENZOIN Fabr. Spice Wood. 

Benzoin benzoin (L.) Coulter (Lindera benzoin Blume). Spice 
Bush. 

Moist shaded banks and slopes. Tippah, Union. Hinds, 
Yazoo, Warren and Madison Counties. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PAPAVERACEAE. Poppy Family. 

SANGUINARIA L. Blood Root. 

Sangninaria Canadensis L. 

Ricli shaded slopes. More common in the northeastern 
counties. Booneville; Eastport; Fulton; Pontotoc; Colum- 
bus ; Hatchie Hills ; New Albany ; Meridian ; Prentiss. :\Iarch. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ARGEMONE L. Prickly Poppy. 

Argemone Mexicana L. 

Waste places near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy). April- 
May. 



152 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull 

Argemone alba Lestib. (A. Mexicana albiflora DC). 
Waste places near the coast. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CAPNOIDES Adans. Corydalis. 

Capnoides aureum. 

Loess bluffs in open ground and copses. Natchez. April- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BRASSICACEAE. Mustard Family. 

LEPIDIUM L. Pepper Grass. 

Lepidium Virginicum L. 

Waste lands and pastures throughout the state. Oxford ; 
Jackson. Spring and summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CORONOPUS Gaertn. Swine Cress. 

Coronopu.s didymus (L.) J. E. Smith. (Senebiera pinnatifida 
DC). Pepper Grass. 

Pastures and moist open lands. Common in moist sands 
along the coast. Jackson; Biloxi. ]March-]\Iay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CAKILE Gaert. Sea Rocket. 

Cakile Chapmanii Millspaugh. C maritima aequalis Chapm.). 
Sands along the beach. Biloxi. June-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Cakile fusiformis. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

SISYMBRIUM L. 

Sisymbrium officinale Scop. (Erysimum officinale L.). Hedge 
Mustard. 

Common in waste places throughout the state. Spring. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 153 

BRASSICA L. Mustard. 

Brassica nigra (L.) Koch (Sinapis nigra L.). Black Mustard. 
Throuuhout the state. Not rare. Spring. 

Brassica alba L. White ]\Iiistard. 

Occasional throughout the state. Spring. 

KORIPA Scop. Cress. 

Roripa nasturtiiun L. Rusby (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.). 
AVater Cress. 

Common throughout the state in cool springy places. 
Biloxi beach. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Roripa sessiliflora (Nutt.) A. S. Hitchcock (Nasturtium sessi- 

litiora Nutt.). 

Along the coast (Tracy). March. 

CARDIMINE L. Bitter Cress. 

Cardamine Pennsylvanica ^luhl. (C. hirsuta Gray). 

Found on dripping limestone ledges of the Tennessee Ri . r 
near Eastport. February-March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Cardamine bulbosa (Schrieb.) B. S. P. (C. rhomboidea DC). 
Boggy ground in the northern counties. Oxford; Taylor; 
Okolona ; Potts Camp ; Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DENTARIA L. 

Dentaria diphylla ]\Iielix. Pepper Root. 

Rich shaded slopes. Eastport ; Oxford. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. (D. concatenata Michx.). 
Rich shaded shlopes. Oxford; New Albany. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



154 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Dentaria lacinia''a multif da (Tluhl.) J. F. James (D, multifida 
Muhl.). 

Rich slopes in northeastern counties. Eastport. March- 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BURSA Weber. Shepherd's Purse. 

Bursa bursa-pastoris L. Britton (Capsella bursa-pastoris 
Gray)). 

Waste lands in pastures throughout the state. March- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DRABA L. Whitlow Grass. 

Draba vema L. Intr. 

Open pastures and waste places. Tishomingo Co. Ben- 
ton Co. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Draba brachycarpa Nutt. 

Open grass plots and waste places throughout the state. 
Oxford. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ARABIS L. Sand Cress. 

Arabis Virginica (L.) Trelease (Arabis ludoviciana C. A. 
Meyer). 

Open grass plots in pastures throughout the state. 

Arabis canadensis L. 

Northeastern counties (Hilg. Ms.). June. 

CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family. 

CLEOME L. 

Cleome spinosa L. (C. pungens Willd.). 

Rather common in open waste places. Copiah Co. ; Smith 
Co. ; Meadville. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FL0\VP:RING PLANTS AND FERNS 155 

SARRACENIACEAE. Pitcher Plant Family. 
SAKRACENIA L. Pitcher Plant. 

Sarracenia purpurea L. 

Southern pine barrens (Hilg. Rep.). March. 

Sarracenia psittacina Miehx. 

Southern pine barrens. Picayune ; Landon ; Biloxi. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Saxracenia rubra Walt. 

Southern pine barrens. Picayune ; Biloxi ; State Line ; 
Leakesville ; Waynesboro ; McHenry ; Landon. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sarracenia Drummondii Croom. 

Pine barrens. State Line. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Sarracenia flava L. 

Pine barrens meadows. Black Bay at Biloxi; Picayune; 
Lumberton. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sarracenia catesbaei Ell. 

Wet pine barrens. Gulfport. (Dr. T. P. Bailey]) June. 

Sarracenia minor Walt. (S. variolaris Michx.) 
Low pine barrens near the coast. (Hilg. Rep.) 

DROSERACEAE. Sundew Family. 
DROSERA L. Sundew. 

Brosera brevifolia Pursh. 

Damp pine barrens near the coast. (Mohr.) April. 

Drosera rotundif olia L. 

Damp pine barrens near the coast. Waynesboro; Hurley; 
Landon; Gulfport; Biloxi; Bay St. Louis; Picayune; Coastal 
Islands. 

Geol. Survev Herb. 



166 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Drosera capillaris Poir. CD. ^ ^evifolia major Hook.) 

Low pine bc.rrens near ihe coast (INIohr.) ; Bexley, April. 

Drosera intermedia. Hayne: (D. longifolia Michx.) 

Low pine barrens. picayune; Hurley. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Drosera filiformis Raf. (D. tenuifolia AVilld.) 

Low pine barrens near the coast. Landon ; Gulfport. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

PODOSTEMACEAE. River Weed Family. 
PODOSTEMON Michx. River Weed. 

Podostemon abrotanoides Nutt. 

Gravelly stream bottoms. (Small). June. 

CRASSULACEAE. Orpine Family. 
SEDUM L. Stone Crop. 

Sedum tematum Michx. 

Wet limestone bluffs of Tennessee River, near Eastport. 
May. 

Geol. Survey Llerb. 

PENTHORUM L. 

Penthorum sedoides L. Ditch Stone Crop. 

Edges of marshes and ditch sides. Common in north 
half of the state. Hinds Co. ; Oxford ; Durant. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE. Saxifrage Family. 
ASTILBE. 

Astilbe biternata (Vint.) Britton. 

Rich shaded slopes of the northern counties. Eastport; 
Ripley ; Oxford. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 157 

SAXIFRAGA L. Saxifrag-e. 

Saxifraga Virginiensis Michx. Virginia Saxifrage. 

Usually on limestone ledges. Confined to the northeast- 
ern counties. Eastport; New Albany; Oxford (found only 
once). April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

TIARELLA L. False Mitrewort. 

Tiarella cordifolia L. 

Northeast counties on rich slopes. April. (]\Iohr.) 

IIEUCHERA L. Alum Root. 

Heuchera Americana L. 

Rocky or dry open woods in the northern counties. Tish- 
omingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Itawamba Co. ; Tippah Co. ; Clay 
Co. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Heuchera villosa. Michx. 

Limcjitone ledges along Tennessee River near Eastport; 
rare. Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

PARNASSIA L. Grass of Parnassus. 

Parnassia grandiflora DC. 

Low wet depressions in lower Pearl River Valley. Pop- 

larville. (Mohr.) 
Parnassia Caroliniana ]\[ichx. 

Wet pine barrens of southeast ^lississippi. (^lolir.) 

PHILADELPHUS L. Syringa. 

Philadelphus grandiflorus Willd. 

Occasional in the northern counties. Fulton; Chunky. 
Perhaps escaped from gardens. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Philadelphus inodorus L. 

Moist woods and river banks. (Small.) April-May. 



158 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

HYDRANGEA L. Wild Hydrangea. 

Hydrangea arborescens L. (H. vulgaris Michx.) 

Common on rich shad.y slopes and creek banks. Tisho- 
mingo, Itawamba and Benton Cos. ; Ripley ; New Albany ; 
Oxford ; Pontotoc ; Madison ; Jackson. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hydrangea radiata Walt. 

Rich shady banks. Southwestern Hinds Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Hydrangea quercifolia Bartram. Oak Leaf Hydrangea. Seven 
Bark. 

Very common in the northern covinties ; less so southward ; 
on shady slopes. Tishomingo, Tippah, Benton, Lafayette, 
Union, Madison and Hinds Counties. May-June. 

Geol. Survej' Herb. Allison Herb. 

ITEA L. 

Itea Virginica L. Virginian Itea. 

Borders of swamps and shaded stream banks. Tishomin- 
go Co. ; Oxford ; Newton ; Lost Gap ; Hattiesburg ; Bay St. 
Louis. i\Iay-June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

DECUMARIA L. 

Decumaria barbara L. (D. sarmentosa Ell.) Carolina Decu- 
maria. 

Shaded alluvial fiats bordering streams. Oxford ; Taylor ; 
Monticello; Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Amite Co. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

HAMAMELIDACEAE. Witch Hazel Family. 
IIAAI A:\IELIS. Witch Hazel. 

Hamamelis Virginiana L. 

Throughout the state on shady slopes. Tippah, Lafayette, 

Hinds, Amite Counties; Chunky; Bay St. Louis. October- 
November. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 150 

LIQUID AMBER L. Sweet Gum. Red Gum. 

Liquidamber styraciflua L. 

Throughout the state, mostly on low lands. The commer- 
cial variety known as "Red Gum" is confined to alluvial bot- 
toms of large streams. Especially common in the Mississippi 
Delta swamps. February-]\Iarch. 

PLAT AN ACE AE. Sycamore Family. 

Platanus occidentalis. Sycamore. 

River bottoms throughout the state. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ROSACEAE. Rose Family. 
SPIREAEA L. Spirea.. 

Spiraea salicifolia L. 

In low wet copses. Picayune. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

PORTERANTHUS. Britton. 

Porteranthus stipulatus. (IMuhl.) Britton. (Gillenia stipu- 
lacea Nutt.). Indian Physic. 

In low open woods of northeastern counties. West Point ; 
Eastport. On Bull ^Mountain Creek, Itawamba Co. Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

RUBUS L. 

Rubus argutus Link (R. villosus frondosus Torr.) Common 
Blackberry. 

Throughout the state bordering lowland thickets and fence 
rows. INIay. 

Rubus argutus floridus (Tratt.) Bailey. (R. floridus Tratt.) 
Light sandy soil. 



160 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Rubus rhodophyllus Rydb. 

Tishomingo County. Spring. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Rubus persistens Rydb. 

Sandy soil. Biloxi (Small). Spring. 

Rubus trivialis IMielix. Southern Dewberry. 

Throughout the state, usually in sandy soil. Coastal 
Islands (Tracy) ; New Albany; Oxford; Waynesboro; Smith 
County. 

Rubus Enslenii Tratt. 
Tishomingo County. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Rubus cuneiiolius Pursh. (R. parvifolius Walt.) Sand Black- 
berry. 

Jackson. (Dr. T. P. Bailey.) April. 

Rubus occidentalis L. Wild Black Raspberry. 

Thickets on rich limey soil. Pontotoc Ridge in Union 

County; Tishomingo County (Allison.) 

Allison Herbarium. 

FRAGARIA L. Wild Strawberry. 

Frag-aria Virginiana . Duchesne. 

On open damp soil. Not common; apparently limited to 

north half of the state. Tishomingo, Hinds, Lafayette coun- 
ties. April-May. 

Allison Herbarium. 

DUCHESNEA Smith. 

Duchesnea Indica (Andr.) Focke. (Fragaria Indica Andr.) 

Escaped from gardens throughout the state. Common. 
Oxford ; Carrollton ; Jackson. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS lOx 

I'OTENTILLA L. 

Potentilla Canadensis L. Five Fingers. 

Common to open upland woodlands. Tishomingo Co. ; La- 
fayette Co. ; Ripley ; Jackson. May. 

GEUM L. Avens. 

Geum Canadense Jacq. (G. album Gmel.) 

Shady thickets. Eastport ; Eipley; Pontotoc; West Point; 
Michigan City ; Oxford ; southern Hinds Co. May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Geum vernum (Raf.) T. & G. 

Shady copses. Pontotoc. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Geol. Survey Herb. 

AGRBIOiXIA L. Agrimony. 

Agrimonia parviflora Soland. (A. suaveoleus Pursh.) Sweet 
Agrimony. 

Borders of woods and thickets; perhaps throughout the 
state. Warren Co. ; ]\Iichigan City. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Agrimonia incisa T. & G. Cut-Leaf Agrimony. 

Edges of woods and copses. Infrequent throughout the 
state. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

ROSA L. Rose. 

Rosa humilis Marsh. (R. Caroliana Michx.) Low Wild Rose. 

Common in open dry upland Avoods of the northern coun- 
ties. Oxford; New Albany; Noxubee County, in sandy ridge 
soil ; West Point ; Amory ; Woodville ; Jackson. IMay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Rosa blanda Ait. Early Wild Rose. 

Starkville (Tracy) ; spring and early summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



162 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Rosa laevigata Michx. (R. sinica Ait) Cherokee Rose. 

Southern counties in open woods and roadsides ; more com- 
mon in the regio.n of the loess hills. Jackson; Warren Co.; 
Claiborne Co. ; Franklin Co. February-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Rosa bracteata Wendl. (Adv.) 

Southern pine region to the coast (Small). July-Septem- 
ber. 

Rosa rubiginosa L. Sweetbrier. 

Run wild in open grounds and along fence rows. Com- 
mon in limey soils. Tishomingo Co. ; Jackson. Summer. 

Allison Herbarium 

Rosa Carolina L. Swamp Rose. 

Low wet ground in swamps and pastures. Northern coun- 
ties ; Benton Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Common. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb, 

PYRUS L. 

Pyrus angustifolia Ait. Southern Crab Apple. 

Throughout the state. Tishomingo, Hinds, Lafayette, For- 
rest Counties. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

ARONIA. Pers. Ckokeberry. 

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. (Mespilus arbutifolia L.) Red- 
Chokeberry. 

Throughout the state along creek banks and edges of 
ponds. ]\Iost common in the southern pine belt. Tishomingo, 
Jones, Hancock, Amite Counties. March-April. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Aronia arbutifolia melanocarpa. Black Chokeberry. 

Edges of swamps and springy marshes. Lafayette Co.; 
Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.) April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 163 

AMEr.AXCIITER Medic. Service Berry, or June Berry. 
Amelanchier Canadensis (L). Medic. (Mespilus Canadensis L.) 
Edges of ponds and borders of streams. Tishomingo and 
Lafayette counties. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CRATAEGUS L. Haw. 

Crataegus spathulata INIichx. 

Damp woods and thickets. Tishomingo and Hinds coun- 
ties. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Crataegus viridis L. (C. arborescens Ell.) 

Damp clay uplands. ^Morton. March-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Crataegus apiifolia (Marsh.) Michx. (jMespilus apiifolius 
Marsh.) Red Haw; Parsley Haw. 

Low wet clay soil throughout the state. Tishomingo Co. 
Hinds Co. ; ]\Iorton ; Hattiesburg. April. 

Crataegus rotundifolia (Ehrh.) Borck. (C. glandulosa Willd.) 
Glandular Haw. 

Dry open woods and thickets. Tishomingo Co.. April 
May. 

Allison Herbarium. 

CrataegiTS mollis (Torr & Gray) Seheele (C. coceinea mollis 
(Torr&Gray). Downy HaAv. 
Rich upland Avoods. Starkville (Tracy.) April. 

Crataegus crus-galli L. Coekspur Thorn. 

Open woods and copses in damp rich soil throughout the 
state. April. 

Crataegus denaria Beadle. 

Along streams in East Mississippi ; Common near Colum- 
bus (Sargent). 

Crataegus Mohrii Beadle. 

Rich damp lowland soil. Tishomingo Co. May. 

Allison Herbarium. 



104 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Crataegus flava Ait. (C. flava pubescens Gray.) Summer Haw. 
Sjuidy soil ; more common in the piney woods region. Simp- 
son Co. (Hilg. Ms.) 

Crataegus aestivalis Torr & Gray. May Haw. 

Low wet borders of streams and ponds in the pine barrens. 
Bay St. Louis. ApriL 

Allison Herb. 

Crataegus uniflora .Meunch. (C. tomentosa Miehx.) Dwarf 
Thorn. 

Dry open copses throughout the state. 

PRUNUS L. 

Prunus Americana Marsh. (P. hy emails Michx.) Wild Plum. 
Dtimp wooded slopes and stream banks throughout the 
state. Benton, Pontotoc, Lafayette, Tishomingo, Hinds, 
Clarke Counties. March-April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Prunus hortulana Bailey. (P. maritima Chapm. Wild Goose 
Plum. 

Littoral along Gulf Coast. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Prnnus angustifolia Marsh. (P. Chicasa ]\lichx.) Old Field 
Plum ; Chickasaw Plum. 

Common in old fields and waste lands throughout the state. 
February-March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Prunus umbellata Ell. Southern Sloe ; Llog Plum. 

Open woods and edges of fields in pine barrens. Enter- 
prise. March. 

Prunus mitis Beadle. 

Open woods. New Augusta. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Wild Black Cherry. 

Throughout the state on low rich ground. March-April. 
Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 165 

Prunus Caroliniana Ait. Laurel Cherry; Wild Peach. 

Low rich ereek banks in the southern counties. Hinds Co. ; 
Hattiesburg. February-iMarch. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

CHRYSOBALANUS L. 

Chrysobalanus oblongifolius r»liehx. Deer Plum. 

Dry pine woods in the southern counties toward the coast. 
Hurley ; i\leHenry. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VICIACEAE. Vetch Family. 
MIMOSA. 

Mimosa strigillcsa T. & 0. Sensitive Plant. 

On low damp open ground. Yazoo City; Tchula. i\Iay. 

ALBIZZIA. Durazz. 

Albizzia julibrissin (Willd.) Duraz. (Mimosa julibrissin Willd.) 

Silk Tree. (Int.) 

In yards and about dwellings throughout the state. May. 

NEPTUNIA Lour. 

Neptunia lutea (Leavenw.) Benth. (Desmanthus luteus Benth.) 
Open grass lands and limey soils. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; 
Jackson ; Back Bay opposite Biloxi. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SHRANKIA Willd. Sensitive Brier. 

Shrankia angustata Torr. & Gray. 

Dry open woods. Lost Gap. May-July. 
Shrankia uncinata AVilld. 

Open pastures on clay soil. Jackson (T. P. Bailey). 

ACUAN Medic. 

Acuan lUinoense (Michx.) Kuntze (Desmanthus brachylobus 
Benth.) 

Open lands, more commonly on prairie soils. Pontotoc ; 
West Point ; Greenwood ; Jackson ; Warren Co. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 



166 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

CERCIS L. 

Cercis Canadensis L. Eed Bud. Judas Tree. 

Tlirougliout the state in rich woods and along streams. 
Tishomingo, Lafayette, Tunica, Chickasaw, Hinds, Warren, 
Clarke, Jones, Smith Counties. March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

CASSIA L. 

Cassia occidentalis L. Coffee Senna. 

A rather common weed about gardens and barnyards. 
Starkville; Diloxi (Tracy) ; Hinds Co. July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Cassia tora L. (C. obtusifolia L.) Low Senna. 

A weed found throughout the state in waste places. June- 
August. 

Cassia Marilandica L. Wild Senna. 

A weed occurring throughout the state. Marshall Co. 
July- August. 

CHA:\IAECRISTA Greene. Sensitive Pea. 

Chamaecrista fascicularis (^lichx.) Greene. (Cassida cham- 
aeerista L.) Partridge Pea. Large-flowered Sensitive Pea. 
Throughout the state in open sunny places. West Point; 
Oxford ; Hinds, Copiah, Jorie^ Counties. August-Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Chamaecrista Missis^ippiensis (Pollard) Pollard. (Cassia Mis- 
sippiensis Pollard.) 

Dry sandy edges of fields near the coast. (Mohr.) 

Chamaecrista chamaecristoides (Colladon) Greene (Cassia de- 
pressa Pollard.) 

Damp shaded banks. Biloxi (Tracy). August. 

Chamaecrista Tracyi Pollard. Sea Beach Sensitive Pea. 
Along the coast. (Small.) 

Chamaecrista multipinnata (Pollard) Greene. (Cassia multi- 
piiiiiata Pollard.) ]\lany-leaved Sensitive Pea. 

Shady banks and edges of fields. Biloxi (Tracy.) August. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS le? 

Chamaecrista robu'^ta (Pollard) Pollard. (Cassia chamaecrista 
Torr. t^ G. ) Sensitive Pea. 
Open borders of woods; coastal islands. (Tracy.) 

Chamaecrista nictitans (L) Moench. (Cassia nictitans L.) 
Wild Sensitive Pea. 

Throiipiioat the state; edges of woods and old fields; more 
common southward. July-August. 

GLEDITSIA L. Honey Locust. 

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 

Throughout the state. Tishomingo, Chickasaw, Warren 
counties. May. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Gleditsia monosperma Walt. (G. aquatica Marsh.) Water Lo- 
cust. 

Low alluvial ground. Tunica; Yazoo City; West Point. 

Gcol. Survey Herb. 

BAPTISIA Vent. False Indigo. 

Baptida alba (L.) R. Br. 

Open prairie soil. Jackson (T. P. Bailey). May. 

Baptisia leucantha (Torr & Gray). 

Rather common on prairies and open lands. Oxford ; 
Tishomingo Co. ; Amory ; West Point ; Hattiesburg. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CROTALARIA L. Rattle Box. 

Crotalaria rotundifolia (Walt.) Poir. (C. ovalis Pursh.) 

Round-Leaf Rattle Box. Dry, sandy open soil. Meadville ; 
Lost Gap ; Hurley ; Gulf port ; Bay St. Louis ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Crotalaria sagittalis L. Common Rattle-Box. 

Sandy soil. Common throughout the state. Lafayette, 
Montgomery, Hinds, Marion (Hilg. j\Is.) and Hancock counties. 
July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



168 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Crotalaria Pnrshii DC. Pnrsh's Eattle Box. 

Damp pine barrens, more common near the coast. Winona, 
Jackson; McHenry; Landon; Gulfport (T. P. Bailey); Biloxi; 
Bay; St. Louis ; Coastal Islands. April and May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

LUPINUS L. Lupine. 

Lupinus gracilis Nutt. (L. perennis gracilis Chapm.) Nut- 
all's Lupine. 

Dry, sandy pine barrens toward the coast. (Mohr.) April. 

Lupinus diffusus Nutt. Spreading Lupine. 

Sandy pine ridges in the lower counties (Mohr). May and 
June. 

Lupinus villosus Willd. Hairy Lupine. 

Lower pine barrens. Wayne County. May. 

MEDICAGO L. 

Medicago denticulata Willd. Toothed Medick. (Int.) 

Naturalized throughout the state, sparingly. Bay St. 
Louis. 

Allison Herbarium. 

Medicago maculata Sibth. (M. Arabica L.) All. Spotted Burr 

Clover. (Int.) 

Naturalized, throughout the state ; most common on lime- 
stone soil. Oxford; Natchez; Starkville (Tracy). March- 
April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Medicago sativa L. Lucern. Alfalfa. (Int.) 

Escaped from cultivation locally in limey soils. May. 

MELILTOUS Juss. Sweet Clover. 

Melilotus alba Desr. White ]\lelilotus. 

Common on white limey prairie soils, especially in north- 
east ^Mississippi, along roadsides, ditches, and limestone bluffs. 
May-Jnne. 



Ko. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 169 

Melilotus Indica All. JM. parviflora Desf.) 
l*rairi(> i-ogion (Mohr.) Rlay-June. 

MELILOTUS Jiiss. Sweet Clover. 

Trifolium reflexum L. Huffalo Clover, 

Open woods and pastui-es; ])rairies. Tishomingo Co. 
April-May. 

Allison-Herb. 

Trifolium Carolinianum ^lichx. Wild White Clover. 

Open fields and pasUiics. Starkville (Tracy.) ^lareh- 
April. 

Trifolium pratense L. Ked Clover. 

(Int.) Escaped from cultivation throughout the state; 
more frequent in the limey soil of the prairies. May. 

Trifolium arvense L. RaM it-Foot Clover. 

(Lit.) Dry light soil along roadsides, in old fields, and 
yards. Holly Springs. Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Trifolium repens L. \> lite Clover. 

(Int.) Escaped fro. cultivation commonly throughout 
the state, along roadsidos. in pastures, and waste places gen- 
erally. April-June. 

Trifolium procumbens i YcIIoav Clover. 

Common in tlie norlli ,n counties in ]iastures and moist 
open ground. May-Jiiii. Lafayette, Tishomingo counties. 

Allison Herb, 

PSORA' ' A L. Psoralea, 

Psoralea pedunculata ()' ' ) Vail (P. melilotoides Michx.) 

Common in open fi(>' '. and banks throughout the state, 
most common northw-^'' (Oxford; Newton; Ilattiesburg. 

June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Psoralea simplex Nutt. 

Wet grassy banks in Iiern counties (^lohr.) June. 



170 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

A:\I0RPHA L. False Indigo. 
Amorpha fruticosa L. 

Throughout the state on low, shady stream banks. East- 
port ; Greenwood ; Gulfport ; Bay St. Louis. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

lOTHNISTERA Lam. Prairie Clover. 

ivuliiiis'era Candida (TVilld.) Kuntze (Petalostemon candidus 
ilviiclix.) V/hite Prairie Clover. 

Tommon in the prairie regions; less so on lighter soils, 
V 1 ro i ; Oxford. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

i'ulin's era pujrpirea (Vent.) ]MacjIi;ian (Petalostemon viola- 
cens rJiehx.) Purple Prairie Clover. 

Usually on prairie soils; not common. Jackson; Green- 
^ ood. July-September. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

"'•.-hriiEtera pinna' a (Walt.) Kuntze (Petalostemon corymbosus 
2ai hx.) Pine-Barren Prairie Clover. 

Dry. sandy pine barrens near the coast. Mississippi City. 
July-September. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

INDIGOFFERA L. 

Indirof era Caroliniana ^A^alt. Wild Indigo. 
Coastal Islands (Tracy.) June, 

CRACCA L. Hoary Pea. 

'racca Virginiana L. (Tephrosia Virginiana Pers.) 

Over the state in dry open upland woods. Tishomingo 
County; Lost Gap; Oxford; Jackson. June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Cracca spicata (AValt.) Kuntze (Tephrosia spicata Torr & 
ray.) Hairy Devil's Shoestring 

Pry, open .'andy woods. Throughout the state, but more 
common southward. Lo.st Gap; Jackson. June-August. 
-;.. . Geol. Survey Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 171 

Cracca ambigna (Curtis) Kuntze. 

Dry pine lands in the southern couuties (Small). 
Cracca hispidula (Miehx.) Kuntze (Tcphrosia hispidula Pers.) 

In pine barrens region (Mohr). June-Sept. 

Cracca chrysophylla (Pursh.) Kuntze. (Tephrosia chrysophylla 
Pursh.) 

Sandy pine barrens, to the coast Ray St. Louis. July. 

Allison-Herb. 

KRAUNHIA Raf. WiEteria. 

Kraunhia frutescens (L.) Greene ("Wisteria frutescens Poir.) 
American Wisteria. 

Tliroughout the state along streams. Tishomingo Co. ; 
Columbus ; New Albany ; Oxford ; Jacfeon. ]May-July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb, 

ROBINIA L. Locust. 

Robiiiia pseudacacia L. Black Locust. 

Rich shaded woods and slopes ; often forms thickets in old 
fields and open grounds. ]May. 

Robinia hispida L. Purple T/ocust. 

robably escaped from cultivation. Oxford. May. 

ASTRAGALUS L. Milk Vetch. 

A.stragalus Carolinianus L. (A. Canadensis L.) Carolina Milk 
Vetch. 

Rich slopes, edges of woods. Northern counties. Ox- 
ford ; Yazoo City. ^lay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Astragalus distortus Torr & Gray. 

Dry soil (Small). Spr:ng and Summer. 

GLOTTIDIUM Desv. 

Glottidium vesicarium (Jacq.) Desv. (Sesbania vesicaria Ell.) 
Low moist ground bordering streams and maishes. Juh'- 
August. 



172 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

__ SESBAN Adans. 

Sesban macrocarpum Muhl. Long-Leaf Sesban. 

Low, damp, open ground in the southern half of the state ; 

Wrrren, Hinds, Jasper, Hancock counties; Coastal Island 

(Tracy). Sept. -October. 

Geol, Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

DAUBENTONIA DC. 

Daubentonia longifolia (Cav.) DC. (Aeschynomene longifolia 
Cav.) 

Low ground along the coast. Biloxi ; Bay St. Louis. June. 

Geol. Survey xir'rb. Allison Herb. 

AESCHYNOMENE L. Senbitivc Jointsd Vetch. 

Ae.;cl.:ynoiTieiie Virginlca (L.) B. S. P. (A. hispida Willd.) 

Coastal plain marshes and low^ grounds. Hancock Co.; 
Coastal Is] anus August. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Aeschynomene viscidula Michx. 

Coastal Islands (Tracy). July. 

STYLOSANTHES Sw. Pencil Flower. 

Stylosanthese biflora (L.) B. S. P. (S. elatior Sw.) 

Over the state in dry light soil. Tippah, Lafayette, Hinds, 
Newton counties ; Bay St. Louis. June July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Stylosanthes riparia Kearny. 

Along the coast. Biloxi (Tracy). July. 

ZORNIA Gmel. 

Zornia bracteata (Walt.) Gmel. (Z. tetraphylla Michx.) Bract- 
ed Zornia. 

Dry sands near the coast. Bay St. Louis ; Petit Bois Island. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS xVND FERNS 173 

MEIBOMIA Adans. Tick Trefoil ; Beggar Tick. 

Meibomia nudiflor."'- (L.) Kr itze. (Desmodium nudiflorum DC.) 
Naked-Stomuiti Beg-jfar Tick. 

Throughout the state in shaded uplands. Oxford; Madi- 
son ; southern Hinds Co. ; I ay St. Louis. July- August. 

Geo!. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Meibomia sessilifolia (Torr.) Kuntze (Desmodium sessilifolia 
Ton- & Gray.) 

In open woods. Oxford. Spring and Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Meibomia grandiflora (Walt.) Kuntze (Desmodium acumina- 
tum DC.) Large-Flowered Beggar Tick. 
Over the state in rich woods. Oxford; Eipley. July-Aug. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Meibomia pauciflora (Nutt.) Kuntze, (Desmodium pauci- 
florum DC). Few-flowered Tick Trefoil. 

Shaded rich woods. Grenada; Toomsuba. June-July. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Meibomia arenicola Vail (Desmodium lineatum DC.) Striped 
Tick Trefoil. 

Dry sandy soil toward the coast. Ocean Springs (Tracy) ; 
Ship Island. Sept.-October. 

Geol. Survey Herb. 

Meibomia Michauxii Tail. (Desmodium rotundifolium DC.) 
Kound-Leaf Tick Trefoil. 

Dry soil in open woodlands, especially the pine barrens. 
August-October. 

Meibomia stricta (Pursh.) Kuntze (Desmodium strictum DC.) 
Erect Tick Trefoil. 

Common in pine barrens to the coa-st. Biloxi (Tracy). 

Meibomia canescens (L.) Kuntze. (Desmodium canescens DC.) 
Hoary Tick Trefoil. 

In open shady forests, especially in sandy soil. Lafayette 
and Hinds counties; Vicksburg (Tracy.) August-Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



174 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Meibomia bractecsa (]\Iichx.) Kuntz, (Desmodium cuspidatum 
Hook.) Bracted Tick Trefoil. 

Lrj', thin upland soils. Oxford. September. 

Meibomia viiidiffora (L.) Kuntze, (Desmodium viridiflorum 

Beck.) Green-Flowered Tick Trefoil. 

In light, moist woodland soils. Oxford, Bay St. Louis. 

July-September. 

Allison Herb. 

Meibomia laevigata (Nutt.) Kuntze, Desmodium laevigatum 
DC.) Smooth Tick Trefoil. 

Southern counties (Hilg. Rep.) August-September. 

Meibomia Marilandica (L. Kuntze, (Desmodium i\Iarilandicum 
Boott.) 

Central and south Mississippi (Hilg.Rep.) August-Sept. 

LESPEDEZA Michx. 

Lespedeza repens Bart. (L.) (L. prostrata Ell.) Creeping Les- 
pedeza. 

Perhaps distributed over the state." Starkville (Tracy.) 
June. 

Lespeileia procimicens Michx. Trailing Lespedeza. 

Dry soil on borders of fields. Reported in Hilg. Rep. Sept. 

Lespsd':''a vlolacea (L.) Pers. (Hedysarum violaceum L.) 

Open woods and copses. Lawrence Co. (Hilg.Ms.) ; 
Starkville (Tracy). September, 

Lespedeza stuvei angustifolia Britton. 

Probably found in the southern counties. August. 

Lespedeiia frutescens (L.) Britton (Hedysarum fruteseens L.) 
Bush Clover. 

Open uplands; more common in old fields of light sandy- 
soil. Scooba; Oxford. October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 175 

Lespedeza Virginica (L.) Britton (L. reticulata Pers.) Virginia 
Bush Clover. 

Sandy and gravelly copses. Jones Co. (Allison) ; Biloxi 
(Tracy). 

Allison-Herb. 

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Ell. (L. polystachya Michx.) Bristly Bush 
Clover. 

Dry, barren soil, mostly of old fields. Oxford ; Bay St. 
Louis. Juh^ 

Lespedeza capitata Michx. (L. fruteseens Ell.) White Bush 
Clover. 

Old fi-elds and copses in dry soils. Bay St. Louis. June- 
Sept 

Allison-Herb. 

Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) Hook. Lespedeza. Japanese Clover. 
(Int.) Waste lands throughout the state. All summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VICIA L. Vetch. 

Vicia Texana (Torr and Gray) Small, (Vicia Caroliniana Tex- 
ana T. & G.) Texas Vetch. 

Open lands and prairies (Small). Spring and summer. 

Vicia Caroliniana Walt. (V. parviflora ^lichx.) White-flowered 
Vetch. 

Open rich woods. Tishomingo and Lafayette counties; 
Jackson; Morton. April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Vicia micrantha Nutt. Small-Flowered Vetch. 

Calcareous soil in open woods and damp fields. Jackson. 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Vicia hirsuta (L.) Koch, (Vicia Mitchellii Raf.) Hairy Vetch. 
Escaped from cultivation. Starkville (Tracy.) May. 

Vicia Ludoviciaiia Nutt. Louisiana Vetch. Deer Pea. 
Rich damp grassy places (Mohr). April 



i7B MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

vicia ativa L. Common Vetch. 

Edges of fields, hedgerows, pastures, and waste places, 
v^ery common. Oxford; Jackson; Bay St. Louis. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BRADBURYA Raf. Butterfly Pea. 

i-rtoui, i a Virginiana (L.) Kuntze, (Centrosema Virginiana 
benth.y 

ij( id^rs of woods and dry open fields. Oxford; Jackson; 

i.ay 1st. Louis. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

CLITORIAL. Butterfly Pea. 

Cliloria Mariana L. Maryland Butterfly Pea. 

Open moist lands over the State. Pontotoc; West Point; 
Lost Gap; Oxford; Jackson; Bay St. Louis. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

FALCATA Geml. 

Falcata comosa (L.) Kuntze,, (Amphicarpa monoica Ell.) Hog 
Peanut. 

Damp rich soil in thickets and open woods. Oxford; 
Cliarlcston. September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

APIOS 2Ioench. Groundnut. 

.''pois apois (L.) McMillan (A. tuberosa Moeneh). Groundnut. 
Oxford ; Hinds Co. ; Collins ; Hattiesburg ; Bay St. Louis. 
•iily-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ERYTHRINA L. 

J.', ythrina herbacea L. Coral Plant. 

Southern half of the state in dry open woods. Jacksor : 
lifir-a; Hattiesburg; Woodville ; Meadville; Moss Point. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 177 

VIGNA Savi. 

Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. (V. glabra Savi). Sand Pea. 

Bordering streams and brackish marshes near tlie coa&t. 
Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Petit Bois Ishmd. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DIOCLEA H. B. K. 
Dioclea multiflora (Torr & Gray) (D. Boykiuii Gray), Boykin's 
Dioelea. 

Rich shaded lowlands. Oxford ; Leakesville ; AVarren- 
toi .-, Holcomb. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

GALACTIA P.Br. Milk Pea. 

Galactia regularis B. S. P. (G. glabella Michx.) Pnie Barrens 
Milk Pea. 

In sandy pine lands to the coast (Tracy). July-Sept. 

Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton (G. pilosa Ell.) Twining j\lii;; 
Pea. 

Sandy and light shady soil. Rocky Ford; Bay St. FiOf's; 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allisoji 

Galactia volubilis intermedia Vail (G. pilosa angustifoh.i 
& Gray). Seaside Milk Pea. 

Borders of streams and marshes, and marine inlets. Beac' 
on Petit Bois Islands. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Galactia erecta (AVilt.) Vail (G. sessiliflora Torr & Gray) 
Erect Milk Pea. 

Dry sandy pine barrens (Mohr). May-June. 

PHASEOLUS L. 

Phaseolus Polystachyus (L.) B. S. P. (P. perennis \ ; 
Wild Bean. 

Dry shady woods. Grenada; Bay St. Louis. July-Septc ■ 
ber. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herl 



178 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Phaseolus pauciflorus Benth. (Strophostyles pauciflorus S. 
Wats.) Small Wild Bean. 
Along rivers in Mississippi (Britton & Brown) ; Coast 
(Tracy.) July-September. 

Fhaseolus helvolrs L. (Strophostyles angulosa Ell.) Trailing 
AVi d Bean. Beach Bean. 

Damp thickets of the interior, but most frequent on sand 
flats of the beach. Oxford ; Carrollton on sand flats of Big 
Sandy; Jackson (T. P. Bailey) ; Biloxi; Bay St. Louis; Coastal 
Islands (Tracy). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Phaseohis umbellatus (Muhl.) Britton, (Strophostyles pedun- 
cularis Ell.) Fragrant Wild Bean. 

Throughout the state. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Gulf- 
port; Biloxi (Tracy.) July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Pbaseolus "^inmlatus Nutt. 

Pine regions (Small.) Summer. 

RHYNCHOSIA Lour. 

Rhynchcsia latifolia Nutt. Prairie Rhynchosia. 
Dry soil. Oxford ; Jackson. May-June. 

Rhynchosia erecta (Walt.) DC. (R. tomentosa erecta Torr & 
Gray) Erect Rhynchosia. 
Dry open woods, most common in pine regions. Rocky 
Ford; Meadville; Jones County. June-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhynchosia tomentc-a (L.) Hook. & Am. (R. difformis DC.) 
Trailing Rhynchosia. 

Dry open woods. Madison County Hilg. Rep.) Jackson 
(T. P. Bailey) Southern Hinds County. September. 

Rhynchosia simplicifolia (Walt.) Wood, (R. reniformis DC.) 
Round-Leaf Rhynchosia. 

Dry open sandy woodlands, most common in the southern 
counties. Hinds Co.; Biloxi; Back Bay; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son). May- June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS IV y 

Rhynchosia galactioides (Nutt.) Endl. (Pitcheria galactic ides 
Nutt.) Pine Barren Rhynchosia. 

Dry sandy pine barrens. Leakesville. July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

GERANIACEAE. Geranium Family. 
GERANH'M L. Cranesbill, or Geranium. 

Geranium Carolinanum L. Common Cranesbill. 

In cultivated and waste ground throughout the state; very 
common. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Oxford; Jackson. March- 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Geranium maculatum L. Spotted Geranium, or Cranesbill. 
Kich shaded slopes in the northern counties. Eai-tport; 
Itawamba Co. ; Ripley ; Booneville ; Pontotoc ; Grenada ; Ox- 
ford; Jackson. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

OXALIDACEAE. Wood-Sorrell Family. 
OXALIS L. 

Oxalis striata L. (0. coruiculata stricta Sav.) Yellow ^Yoo] 
Sorrel. 

Very common in open ground throughout the state. Tislio- 
mingo Co. (Allison;) Oxford; Jackson; Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
April-May. . 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb 

Oxalis violacea L. Purple Wood Sorrel. 

Throughout the state in damp open soil. Oxford; Jack- 
son; Tishomingo Co. (Allison). Very common. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb 

LINACEAE. Flax Family. 
LINUM L. Flax. 

Linrnn Virginianum L. Wild Yellow Flax. 

In open old fields, and waste lands. Jackson (T. 1* 
Bailey). April-May. 



180 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Linum Floridanum (Planch). Trelease (L. Virginianum Flori- 
danum Planch.) Southern Yellow Flax. 

Low dir^p pine barrens, and old fields with spiuly soil. Ox- 
ford; Greu.iaa; Bay St. Louis (Allison); Coastal Lslands 

(Tracy). J^Iay. 

GeoL Surv. Herh. Allison Herb. 

LL urn usitatissmm L. Common Flax. 

Occasional in waste places. Oxford. May-June. 

RUTACEAE. Rue Family. 

ZANTHOXYLUil L. Prickly Ash. 

Zar.tlio>; "^ clava-herculis L. Southern Prickly Ash. 

in ricH ua.np soil of edges of woodlands in the southern 
(■our "f . 1' s bluff's at Vicksburg; limestone soils of Clarke 
and \s i ,. lie counties ; Bay St. Louis ; Pascagoula. ' April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PTELEA L. 

Ptelea trifoliata L. Hop Tree. 

Shaded banks of streams. Oxford; Enterprise. (Rare). 
May. 

SIMARUBACEAE. Simbaruba Family. 
AILANTHUS Desf. 

Ailantkus glandulosus Desf. Tree of Heaven. 

(Int. from China) Escaped from cultivation near old set- 
tlements. June 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Caltrop, or Bean-Caper Family. 
TRIBULUS L. 

Tribulus tere tris L. Ground Bur-Nut. 

Open waste places, and pastures in the southern counties. 
In pastures becoming a veritable nuisance within the last few 
years. Hinds Co.; Warren Co.; (Adv. from Europe.) Sum- 
'ner. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 181 

KALLSTROEMIA Scop. Caltrop. 

I'r/Is'.rcsmia parviflora Norton. 
In dry soil (Small.) 

MELIACEAE. Pride of China Family. 
MElJxi L. Pride of China ; Chinaberry Tree 

Melia azedarach L. 

Throughout the state around dwellings and waste grounds. 
Once seen growing in deep swamp of Leaf River. March- 
April. 

POLYGALACEAE. Milkwort Family. 
POLYGALA L. Milkwort. 

Polygala cymosa Walt. (P. corymbosa j\Iichx.) Pine-barren 
r»iilkwort. 

Low wet pine barrens, and ponds near the coast. Leakes- 
ville ; Bay St. Louis ; Picayune ; Biloxi Back Bay. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala ramosa Ell. (P. corymbosa Nutt.) Low-branched 
Milkw^ort. 

Wet pine barrens toward the coast. Marion and Jones 
counties ; Picayune ; Bay St. Louis ; Biloxi Back Bay. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala lutea L. Yellow Milkwort. 

Long-leaf pine region. Madison Co. (Hilg.Ms.) ; Wayne 
Co.; Simpson Co.; Picayune; Biloxi Back Bay (Tracy). June- 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala paludosa St. Hil. Swamp Milkwort. 
Sandy soil. Spring and summer (Small.) 

Polygala Baldwinii Nutt. Bladwin's Milkwort. 
Pine barren swamps (Small). Summer. 



182 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Polygana nana (IMichx.) DC. (P. lutea nana Michx.) Dwarf 
Milkwort. 

Pine barrens in southern counties to the coast. Menden- 
hall ; AVaynesboro ; Hattiesburg ; Gulfport ; Back Bay opposite 
Biloxi ; Bay St. Louis ; Coastal Islands (Tracy). April-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala cruciata L. Cross-Leaf Milkwort. 

Damp open pine woods. luka ; Oxford ; DeKalb ; Colum- 
bia; Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Bay St. Louis June-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala brevifolia Nutt. Short-Leaf Milkwort. 

Damp, shaded soil near the coast. Wiggins. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygala Hookerii Torr. & Gray (P. attenuata Hook.) Hook- 
er's Milkwort. 

Damp pine barrens near the coast. Leakesville ; Missis- 
sippi City. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygala cetacea Michx. Slender Milkwort. 

Low, damp, shaded pine barrens. Leakesville ; Hurley ; 
Back Bay at Biloxi. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polyga'^a Eoykinii Nutt. Boykin's Milkwort. 

Damp shaded ground, chiefly in prairies. Columbus; 
Jackson; Brookhaven; Hurley; Bay Springs in Smith Co. (in 
limestone soil). June-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygala verticillata L. Worled-Leaf Milkwort. 

Damp open soil throughout the state. Lafayette Co. ; 
Hancock Co. July-August. 

Allison Herb. 

'yS^ala ambigua Nutt. (P. verticillata ambigua Wood) Am- 
biguous Milkwort. 

Dry, sandy, or gravelly thickets. Booneville; Biloxi 
(Tracy). June- July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 183 

Polygala incarnata L. Naked-Stemmed Milkwort. 

Damji, liylit sandy soil in open woods throughout the state. 
Oxford; Yalobusha Co. (Hilg.Ms.) ; Madison Co.; Hinds Co.; 
Moss Point ; Bay St. Louis. May-Septeinber. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polyg-ala viridescen^ L. (P. sauguinea L.) Greenish-Flowered 
iMilkwort. 

Dry woods over the state. luka; Houston (in Flatwoods) ; 
Carroll Co.; Attala Co. (Hilg.Ms.); Coast (Tracy). July. 

Geol. Surv, Herb. 

Polygala mariana .Alill. (P. fastigiata Nutt.) Maryland Milk- 
Avort. 

Damp, grassy ground. luka; Grenada; Oxford; Hancock 
Co. (Allison) ; Biloxi (Tracy). June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala Nuttallii Torr. & Gray. (P. sanguinea Nutt.) Nutt- 
all's Milkwort. 
In low, damp pine lands. Winona ; Laurel. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polygala Chapmani Torr. & Gray. Chapman 's Milkwort. 
AVet pine barrens (Mohr.) May- June. 

Polygala polygama AValt. Polygamous Milkwort. 

Flat grassy pine barrens. Landon. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

"'^''vgala grandiflora Walt. (P. pii])escens Muhl.) Large-Flow- 
ered ^lilkwort. 

Dry copses and borders of pine woods of the southern 
counties. Lost Gap; Vosburg; Jackson; Hancock Co. (Alli- 
son) ; Coastal Islands (Tracy). June-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Polygala Senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. 

Madison County (Hilg.Ms.) Dry open woods. Spring. 

Polygala leptostachys Shuttl. 

Dry sandy soil. Lyman. Spring. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



184 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family. 

CROTON L. 

Croton capitatus iMichx. Wooly Croton. 

A common weed of pastures and waste places. Oxford; 
Winona; Utica; Bay St. Louis. August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Croton maritimus Walt. (C. punctatus Jacq.) Silver Leaf, or 
Seaside Croton. 

Dry, drifting sands near the coast. Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son) ; Coastal Islands. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Croton glandnlosus L. Glandular Croton. 

Dry sandy fields and waste places. Marion Co. (Hlg. 
Ms.) ; Biloxi (Tracy) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison). August. 

Allison Herb. 

CROTONOPSIS Michx. 

Crotonopsis linearis Michx. 

Dry sandy soil. Lafayette Co.; LaAvrence Co. (Hilg. Ms.). 
August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ACALYPHA. Mercury. 

Acalypha gracilens Gray (A. Virginica gracilens Muhl.) Slen- 
der Three-Seeded Mercury. 

Dry sandy soils, woods and waste places. Coast and 
Coastal Islands (Tracy.) 

Allison Herb. 

TRAGIA L. 

Tragia urens L. (T. innocua Walt.) Stinging Tragia. 
Dry sandy soil in pine barrens. Bay St. Louis. 

RICINUS L. 

Ricinus communis L. Palma Christi. Castor Bean. 

(Adv.) Scattered throughout the state near old home- 
steads. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 186 

JATROPHA L. 

Jatropha stimulosa Michx. (J. urens stimulosa Muell.) Spurge 
Nettle. Bull Nettle. 
Dry sandy pine barrens, southern counties to the coast. 

Lost Gap ; Jasper Co. ; Hattiesburg ; Lumberton ; Cat Island 
(Tracy). ]\Iay-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

STILLINGIA L. 

Stillingia aquatica Chapm. 

Low pine barrens marshes. Picayune. Summer. 

Stillingia sylvatica L. Queen's Delight. 

Dry sandy soil, especially in the southern counties. Lost 
Gap ; Enterprise ; Jasper Co. (Hilg.Ms.) April- June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SEBASATIANA Spreng. 

Sebastiana ligustrina Muell. (Stillingia ligustrina Michx.) 

Shady stream banks. Jackson ; Hattiesburg ; Clarke Co. ; 
Tyler-town; Bay St. Louis. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

EUPHORBIA L. Spurge. 

Euphorbia polygonifolia L. Seaside Spurge. 

Drifting sands, and beaches along the coast and Coastal 
Islands (Tracy.) July-October. 
Euphorbia cordifolia Ell. Heart-Leaf Spurge. 

Littoral sands. Gulf Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy.) 
June-August. 

Euphorbia humistrata Engelm. Low-Spreading Spurge. 

Shady sandy, grassy soil. Oxford; Bay St. Louis; Ocean 
Springs (Tracy) ; Horn Island. August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Euphorbia maculata L. (E. thymifolia Pursh). Spotted Spurge. 
Roadsides and waste places throughout the state. July- 
Nov. 



186 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Euphorbia nutans Lag. (7 7: r!ii Guss.) Field Spurge. 

In fields and cultivated ^lounds throughout the state. Ox- 
ford; Winona; Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Euphorbia corollata L. Flowering Spurge. 

Throughout the state in open ground. Lafayette Co. ; 

Tishomingo Co.; Hinds Co.; Bay St. Louis (Allison). June- 
October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Euphorbia corollata angiistifolia Ell. Narrow-Leaf Flower- 
ing Spurge. 

Ery upland pine woods. Tishomingo Co. July- August. 

Euphorbia dictyosperma Fisch & Mey. (E. Arkansana Engelm. 
& Gray). Arkansas Spurge. 

Damp open pine lands and fields. Jackson. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Euphorbia prostrata Ait. Prostrate Spurge. 

Sandy soil along the coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy.) 

Euphorbia marginata Pursh. Large-Flowered Spurge. 

Escaped from cultivation. Lafayette Co. June-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHAMAESYCE S. F. Gray. 

Chameasyce Tracyii Small. 

Sandy plains (Small.) Summer. 

TITLIYMALOPSIS Oel. & Gareke. 

TithyiEalopsis olivacea Small (Euphorbia olivacea Small.) 

Sandy soil, northern Mississippi (Small). Summer. 

Ti'h3mialopsis apocynifolia Small. (Euphorbia apocynifolia 
Small). 

Sandy soil (Small.) Summer and fall. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 187 

CALUTRICHACEAE. Water Starwort Family. 
CALLITRICHE L. Water Starwort. 

Callitriche Nuttallii Torr. (C. pedunculosa Nutt.) Nuttall's 
Water Starwort. 

Damp open ground in the southern counties (Mohr). Feb.- 
March. 

EMPETRACEAE. Crowberry Family. 
CERATIOLA Michx. 

Ceratiola ericoides Michx. Heather-like Ceratiola. 

Drifting sands along the coast and islands. Horn Island; 
Cat Island. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BUXACEAE. Box Family. 
PACHYSANDRA Michx. 

Pachysandra procumbens Michx. Mountain Spurge. 

Rich shaded limestone slopes, northeast Mississippi ; slopes 
of Tennessee River near Eastport. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ANACARDIACEAE. Cashew Family. 

RHUS L. Sumach. 

Rhus copanina L. Dwarf Sumach. 

Throughout the state, on dry sandy or rocky uplands. 
Tishomingo Co. ; Pontotoc ; Oxford ; Ripley ; Jackson. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhus glabra L. Smooth Sumach. 

Throughout the state on light soil. Tishomingo Co. ; Pon- 
totoc Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhus vernix L. (R. venenata DC.) Poison Sumach. 

Perhaps throughout the state in shady swamps; not com- 
mon. DeKalb; Newton; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Mav. 

Allison Herb 



188 MISSISSIPPI STATT: :"E0L0GICAL survey [Bull. 

Rhus hirta (L.) (Rhus 1. pl.^na L.) Staghorn Sumach, 

Dry upland woods ; ii 1 borders of fields. A small tree 
10-14 feet high. Hinds Lo.; Martin (Tracy). June. 

Rhus radicans L. (R. toxicodendron vulgare Michx.) Poison 
Ivy. Poison Vine. 

Throughout the state, climbing over trees. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhus toxicodendron L. (R. toxicondendron querifolium Michx.) 
Poison Oak. 

On sandy upland soil. Tishomingo Co. ; Oxford ; Jack- 
son ; Hattiesburg ; Montrose. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CYRILLACEAE. Cyrilla Family. 
CYRILLA L. 

Cyrilla racemiflora L. Black Ti-ti. Leatherwood. 

Borders of swamps and streams in the pine barrens. Hat- 
tiesburg; Bay St. Louis. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CLIFTONIA Banks. 

Cliftonia monophylla (Lam.) Britton (C. ligustrina Spreng.) 
Ti-ti. 

Pine barrens swamps. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Hancock Co. (Al- 
lison) ; Landon; Hurley. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ILICACEAE. Holly Family. 
ILEX L. Holly. 

Ilex opaca Ait. Common Holly. 

Throughout the state on rich wooded slopes and lowlands. 
Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. Apr. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 189 

Ilex cassine Walt. (Ilex vomitoria Ait.) Yaupon. 

Bordering low woods and copses in the southern counties. 
Uattiesburg; McHenry, Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Horn Island, 
pril. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ilex decidua Walt. (Ilex prinoides Ait.) Deciduous Holly. 
Possum Haw. 

Low wet woods and along streams. Tishomingo (Allison) ; 
Benton Co. Hinds Co. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ilex Caxoliniana AYalt. (I. ambigua Chapm.) Carolina Privet. 
Sandy banks of streams of southern counties. Bay St. 
Louis. April. 

Allison Herb. 

Ilex monticola Gray (I. montana Gray) Mountain Holly. 

Damp rocky banks of brooks. Tishomingo Co. (found 
only once.) April. 

Ilex glabra (L.) Gray (Prinos glaber L.) Gall Berry. Ink Berry. 
Forming thickets on low wet pine barrens toward the 
coast — the so-called ' ' gall-berry flats. ' ' Landon ; Biloxi ; Bay 
St. Louis. Marion and Jones Counties (Harper) ; Newton Co. 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray (Prinos verticillatus L.) Winter 
Berry. 

Marshy springs and stream borders. Tishomingo Co. ; 
Lafayette Co. ; Holmes Co. Very conspicuous and common in 
late fall and winter. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CELASTRACEAE. Staff -Tree Family. 

EUONYMUS L. Strawberry Bush. 

Euonymus Americanus L. American Strawberry Bush. Burn- 
ing Bush. 



190 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Low damp thickets along streams, and bordering springs 
and lakes. Lafayette Co. ; Panola Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Hinds Co. ; 
Warren Co. ; Jones Co. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Euonjnnus atropurpureus Jacq. "Wahoo. Burning Bush. 

Rich, shaded slopes. Found only once on Pontotoc Ridge. 
Pontotoc. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

STAPHYLEACEAE. Bladder Nut Family. 
STAPHYLEA L. 
Staphylea trifoliata L. American Bladder Nut. 

Moist shady borders of woods and thickets in the northern 
counties. Lafayette Co. ; Pontotoc Ridge near New Albany, 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ACERACEAE. Maple Family. 

ACER L. Maple. 

Acer saccharu.m barbatum (Michx.) Trelease (A. barbatum 
Michx.) Rock Maple. Sugar Maple. 

On river bottoms and rich slopes in the northern counties. 
Lafayette Co. ; Grenada Co. ; Pontotoc ; Okolona ; New Alba- 
ny; Ripley. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Acer leucoderme Small. White Bark Maple. 

Low lands along streams in the southern counties. Wayne 
Co. 

Acer Floridanum (Chapra.) Pax, (A. saccharium Floridanum 
Chapm.) Florida Maple. 

Rich slopes and low woodlands along streams; common 
on Pontotoc Ridge near New Albany; Clarke Co.; Taylor; 
Gloster. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 191 

Acer saccharinum L. (A. dasycarpum Ehrh.) Silver ]\Iaple. 

Rich alluvium along streams. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette 

Co. ; Okolona ; Hattiesburg. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Acer rubrum L. Red Maple. 

Throughout the state on low lands bordering streams. 
Tishomingo Co.; Lafayette Co.; Amite Co.; Bay St. Louis 
(Allison). 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Acer Drummondii tlook & Arn. (A rubrum Drummondii Sarg.) 
Drummond's Red Maple. 

River svramps; frequent on Mississippi and Yazoo River 
bottoms (Mohr.) February. 

Acer negundo L. (Negundo aceroides IMoench.) Box Elder. 

Low rich ground throughout the state. Tishomingo Co.; 
Lafayette Co. ; Chickasaw Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. March. 

Geol. Surv. Llerh 

AESCULACEAE. Horse Chestnut Family. 

AESCULUS L. Buckeye. 

Aesculus pavia L. Red Buckeye. 

On rich slopes, edges of woods, and thickets throughout 
the state. Oxford ; Jackson ; Clarke Co. ; Wayne Co. March- 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aesculus austrina Small. 

Rich open woods with above species, low swamps of south- 
ern counties. Jackson; common in Leaf River bottoms, 
of Smith Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aesculus octandra ^Marsh. (A. lutea Wang) Yellow Buckeye. 

Rich wooded hillslopes. (Reported in Hilg. ]Ms.) 
Aesculus glabra AVilld. Fetid Buckeye. 

Rich lowland limestone soil. Okolona; Starkville (Tracy). 

May. 



192 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

SAPINDACEAE. Soapberry Family. 

SAPINDUS L. 

Sapindus marginatus Willd. Soapberry, Wild China. 
Assigned doubtfully by Mohr to this state. 

RHAMNACEAE. Buckthorn Family. 
BERCHEMIA. Necker. 

Perchemia scandens (Hill) Trelease (B. volubilis DC.) Rattan 
Vine. 

Low damp thickets and borders of woods. Not common in 
the northern counties. Lafayette Co. (rare) ; Okolona; 
West Point ; New Albany ; Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; Adams Co. 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

RHAMNUS L. Buckthorn. 

Rhamnus Caroliniana Walt. (Frangula Gray). Indian Cherry. 
Yellow Wood. 

Rich shaded hillslopes, especially in limey soils. Pontotoc 
Ridge at New Albany ; Sartartia on loess bluffs ; Hinds Co. ; 
Copiah Co. ; Clarke Co. ; Amite Co. ; Forrest Co. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

SAGERETIA. Brongn. 

Sageretia minutiflora (Michx.) Trelease (Rhamnus minuti- 
Horus xMichx.) Michaux's Sageretia. 
Gravelly and sandy exposed wooded banks (Mohr). Oct. 

CEANOTHUS L. 
Ceanothus Americanus L. New Jersey Tea. Red Root. 

Dry open woods and copses in the northern counties. Ox- 
ford ; Pontotoc ; Lost Gap ; Grenada ; Ripley ; Jackson ; Mead- 
ville. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17 J FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 193 

Ceanothus Americanus intermedius (Pursh.) Torr. & Gray, 
(C. intermedus Pursh.) Lesser Ceanothus. 
Dry sandy copses in the southern counties. Bay St. Louis. 

Allison Herb. 

BALSAMINACEAE. Basalm, or Impatiens Family. 
IMPATIENS L. Touch-Me-Not. Jewel Weed. 

Impatiens biflora AValt. (L fulva Nutt.) Spotted Touch-me-not. 
Common around marshy, shaded springs and brooksides. 
Eastport; Ripley; Oxford; Taylor; Vicksburg; Rosetta. 
June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VITACEAE. Vine Family. Grape Family. 
PARTHENOCISSUS Planch 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Ampelopsis quin- 
quefolia ]\Iielix.j \'irgiuia Creeper. 

Throughout the state on lowlands. Lafayette, Hinds, Tish- 
omingo counties. May-June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

AMPELOPSIS Michx. 

Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Rusby (Cissus bipiuuata Nutt.) Pep- 
peridge. Kentucky Vine. 

Copses and borders of woods, mostly in the loess region. 
Planted for ornament. Okolona ; Rankin Co. (Hilg. ]\Is.) ; 
Hicds Co. ; AYarren Co. ; Jefferson Co. ; Ocean Springs 
(Tracy). June. 

Geol. Surv. Herl). Allison Herb. 

Ampelopsis cordata Michx. (Cissus ampelopsis Pars.) Heart- 
Leaf Cissus. 

Common in thickets and edges of springs in the southern 
counties. Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; Claiborne Co. ; less com- 
mon eastward. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 



I94 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [BulL 

VITIS L. Grape. 

Vitis aestivalis ]\Iichx. Summer Grape. 

Throughouf the state on rich wooded slopes and low 
grounds. Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Vitis cinerea Engelm. Downy Grape. 

Low damp thickets on banks of streams. Tishomingo Co. 

Allison Herb. 

Vitis cordifolia Michx. Winter Grape. 

Rich slopes in the more northern counties. Oktibbeha Co. 
(Tracy) ; Warren Co. 

Vitis vulpina L. (A'itis riparia Miclix.) Riverside Grape. Pos- 
sum Grape. 

In rich soil along river banks. Copiah Co. ; Ocean Springs 
(Tracy). June. 

Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (V. vulpina Torr. & Gray). Musca- 
dine. Bullace Grape. 

In light, especially dry, sandy soil throughout the state. 
Tishomingo county ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Franklin Co. 
May-June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Vitus labrusca L. Fox Grape. Plum Grape. 

lu thickets on low ground. Oxford; Jackson (T. P. Bail- 
ey.) 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

TILIACEAE. Linden Family. 

TDia Americana L. Basswood. Linden. 

I>ow licli woods along streams. Waynesboro. 

Tilia pubescens Ait. 

Low rich woods. Lafayette Co.; Warren Co.; Hatties- 
burg ; Liberty. April-May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

(The tilias of Mississippi are in confusion. There may be 
more than two species. Dr. Sargent has' lately given them at- 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 195 

tention, and will, it is hoped, sooii publish the results of his 
studies.) 

MALVACEAE. Mallow Family. 

ABUTILON. Gaertn. 

Abutilon abutilon (L) Rusby (A. avicennae Gaertn.) Indian 
Mallow. Velvet Leaf. 

Ruderal about farmyards, gardens and waste grounds. 
Marshall county; Lafayette Co. June-September. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

MODIOLA. Moench. Mallow. 

Modiola Caroliniana (L.) Don (^I. multifida Moench.) Caro- 
lina Mallow. 

A common weed, roadsides, pastures, and waste places. 
May-July. 

CALLIRRHOE. Nutt. Poppy Mallow. 

Callirrhoe papaver (Cav.) Gray (Malva papaver Cav.) Purple 
Poppy Mallow. 

Light sandy soils of the southern counties. Meridian; El- 
lisville ; Hattiesburg ; Shubuta ; Lumberton. August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Callirrhoe alceoides (Michx.) Gray (Sida alceoides Michx.) 
Pale Poppy Mallow. 

Light shaded upland soil. Oxford. August. 

Callirrhoe triangulata (Leav.) Gray (Malva triangulata Leav- 
enworth) Triangular-Leaf Mallow. 

Rich shady sandy soil of southeast Mississippi. Lost Gap. 
June-July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

SIDA L. 

Sida spinosa L. Spiney Sida. 

A common weed in cultivated ground and w^aste places. 
Oxford; Starkville (Tracy); Hinds Co.; Claiborne Co.; 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 



196 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Sida rhombifolia L. Rhomb-Leaf Sida. 

Dry pastures and waste lands. Biloxi (Tracy). May. 

Sida EUiottii Torr. & Gray (Sida gracilis Ell ) Elliott's Sida. 
Light dry soil, open copses in the southern counties 
(Mohr). June-August. 

HIBISCUS L. Rose Mallow. 

Hibiscus aculeatus Walt. (Hibiscus scaber Michx.) Rough Rose 
]\Iallow. 

Grassy pine barrens toward the coast. Bay St. Louis (Al- 
lison) ; Picayune ; Gulf port. July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Hibiscus moscheutos L. Swamp Rose Mallow. 

Borders of swamps and marshes throughout the state. Ox- 
ford; Greenwood; Grenada; Vicksburg; Durant; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). June-July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Hibiscus grandiflorus ]\Iichx. Great-Flowered Rose Mallow. 
Marshes, chiefly near the coast (Small). Spring to fall. 

Hibiscus militaris Cav. (H. Virginicus Walt.) Halbert-Leaf 
Rose iMallow. 

Low banks of steams and shaded depressions. Houston; 
Tchula ; Grenada. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Hibiscus syriacus L. Althea. 

Sparingly escaped from cultivation in the southern coun- 
ties. Hinds Co. ; Rankin Co. Summer. 

KOSTELETZKYA Presl. Virginia Kosteietzkya. 

Kosteletzkya Virginica (L.) Gray (Hibiscus Virginicas L.) 
Fresh and brackish marshes alone the coast. Bay St. 
Louis. June-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Kosteletzkya altheaefolia Gray. Althea-Leaf Kosteletzkya. 
Salt niarslies along the coast (]\Iohr). 



ISO. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 197 

THE ACE AE. Tea Family. 

Gordonia lasianthus L. Loblolly Bay. 

Wooded swamps near the coast. Bay St. Louis. June. 

Allison Herb. 

STEWAETIA L. 

Stewartia malacodendron L. S. Virginiea Cav.) Virginia 
Stewartia. 

Rich wooded slopes and lowlands in the southern counties. 
Monticello; Hattiesburg; Meadville; Rosetta. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

STERCULIACEAE. Sterculia Family. 
MELOCHIA L. 

Melochia corchorifolia L. (M. hirsuta Chapm.) Hirsute Melo- 
chia. 

Adevntive from the tropics. Biloxi (Tracy). July. 

HYPERICACEAE. St. Johnswort Family. 
ASCYRUM. St. Peterswort. 

Ascyrum amplexicaule ^Michx. (A. tetrapilalum Lam.) Vail. 
Damp sands near the coast. Hurley. Summer. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Ascyrum cuneifolium Chapm Wedge-Leaf St. Peterswort. 
Low pine liarrens. Coastal Islands (Tracy). June-Sept. 

Ascyrum multicaule ]\Iichx. (A. Crux-Andreae L.) St. An- 
drew's Cross. 

Open woods and copses. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; War- 
ren Co.; Bay St. Louis (Allison). July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ascyrum stans Michx. (A. hypericoides h., in part). 

Damp open woods in the southern counties Biloxi 
(Tracy) ; Waj-nesboro ; Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Madison Co. 
(Hilg. Ms.). Summer. 

Allison Herb. 



198 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Ascjnrum hypericoides L. (A. Crux Andreae angustofoliuH 
Xutt.) Southern St. Peterswort. 

Sandy pine woods and thickets. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ascyrum pumilum Miehx. Dwarf St. Peterswort. 

Light dry soil in the southern pine belt. Back Bay oppo- 
site Biloxi. April, 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

HYPERICIBI L. St. Johnswort. 

Hpericum prolificum L. Shrubby St. Johnswort. 

Dry, light rocky soil. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Chunky. 
June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

H3rpericmn mjrrtifolium Lam. (H. glaucum Michx.) Pale St. 
Johnswort. 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast Moss Point. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Hypericum fasciculatum Lam. (H. nitidum Lam.) Tall Narrow- 
Leaved St. Johnsw^ort. 

AYet margins of pine barren streams. Biloxi (Tracy). 
July. 

Hypericum aspalathoides Willd. Short-Leaf St. Johnswort. 
Wet pine barrens near the coast. Waynesboro ; Picayune. 
August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Hypericum g-alioides Lam. Glossy St. Johnswort. 
Pine barrens southern counties. Hurley. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Hypericum galliodes pallidum Mohr. (H. galioides ambiguum 
Chapm.) 

Shaded swamps in the pine barrens (Mohr). June-Sept. 

Hypericum cistifolium Lam. (H. nudifiorum Michx.) Cistus- 
Leaf St. Johnswort. 

Borders of alluvial swamps. Bay St. Louis. June. 

Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 199 

Hypericum opacum Toit. & Gray (H. cistifolium Wats.) 
Opaque -Leaved St. Johnswort. 

LoAv wet pine barrens bordering swamps. Bay St. Louis. 
IMay. 

Hypericum virgatum acutifolium (Ell.) Coulter (IL aeutifoli- 
uin .Mit'lix.) Angular-Stemmed St. Johnswort. 
Low pine forests (Hilg. Ms.). July. 

Hypericum pilosum Walt. (H. simplex Michx.) Hoary St." 
Johnswort. 

AVet sandy soil in the pine barrens. Bay St. Louis. July. 

Allison Herb. 

Hypericum maculatum Walt. (H. corymbosum Muhl.) Spotted 
St. Johnswort. 

Throughout the state, bordering fields and thickets. Mad- 
ison Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Oxford; West Point. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Hypericum mutilmn L. Smaller St. Johnswort. 

Wet shaded places along ditches and brooks throughout 
the state. Lafayette Co.; Union Co.; Hinds Co.; Madison 
Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Warren Co.; Bay St. Louis. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Hypericum gymnanthum Engelm. & Gray. Bare-Flowered St. 
Johnswort. 

Exposed wet soil near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy). May. 

Hypericum Drunmiondii Torr. & Gray. Drummond's St. 

Johnswort. 

Dry open soil. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Amite Co. (Alli- 
son) ; Cat Island (Tracy). September. 

Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B. S. P. (Sarothra genianoides 
L.) Orange (irass. Pine Weed. 

Over the State in sandy open lands. Coastal Islands (Tra- 
cy) ;Waveland ; Bay St. Louis (Allison: Siep Island. 
July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



200 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Hypercium perforatum L. 

Moist shaded ground. Oxford; Hinds Co. 

Gecl. Sur. Herb. 

TRIADENUM Raf. 

Triadenum petiolatmn Walt. (Elodes petiolata Pursh.) Marsh 
St. Johnswort. 

Edges of marshes and swamps. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.). 
July. 

Triadenum Virginicum (L.) Raf. (Elodes campanulata Pursh.) 
Virgina Marsh St. John's Wort. 

Low wet places, perhaps throughout the state. Oxford; 
Taylorsville ; Bay St. Louis. July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CISTACEAE. Rock Rose FamUy. 

HELIANTHEMUM Pers. 

Helianthemum arenicola Chapm. Seaside Rock Rose. 

Drifting sand near the seashore (Mohr). April-May. 

Helianthemum Georgianum Chapm. Georgia Rock Rose. 

Open sandy hillsides. Along the coast (Dr. T. P. Bailey) ; 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). May-June. 

Helianthemum corymbosum :\Iichx. CorymbedRock Rose. 

Dry sands near the coast. Coastal Islands (Tracy). April. 

Helianthemum rosamarinifolium (Pursh). 
Dry sandy banks (Mohr). August. 

Helianthemum Carolinianum (Walt) Michx. (Cistus Carolinia- 
nus Walt.) Carolina Rock Rose. 
Dry sandy soil. Oxford; Carrollton. March. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

LECHEA L. Pinweed. 

Lechea minor L. (L. thymifolia Michx.) Thyme-Leaved 
Lechea. 

Light sandy soil in the coastal regions. Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). August. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 201 

Lechea villosa Ell. (L. major Michx.) Hairy Pinweed. 

Dry thin soil. Hinds Co.; Cat Island (Tracy). May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Lechea tenuifolia ^lichx. Narrow-Leaf Pinweed. 

Dry, open, sterile soil throughout the state. Oxford; 
Hinds Co. September. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Lechea Torreyi Leggett (L. racemulosa Hook.) Torrey's Pin- 
weed. 

Dry sands along the coast. Horn Island (Mohr). June. 

VIOLACEAE. Violet Family. 
VIOLA L. Violet. 

Viola pedata L. Bird's Foot Violet. 

Dry open copses, mostly in upland regions of sandy soil. 
Seems never to be found in loess regions. Tishomingo Co. ; 
sandy uplands of Attala Co. ; eastern Lafayette Co. ; Tippah 
Co. ; in flatwoods near Scooba, Neshoba Co. ; dry clay soils of 
Scott Co. April-May. 

Geol. Siirv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Viola pedata bicolor Pursh. Bi-Colored Bird's Foot Violet. 
This variety has been found in Mississippi only in sandy 
uplands of northeastern Tippah county. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Viola palmata L. Blue Wood- Violet. 

In open woods throughout the state. The commonest up- 
land violet in the loess region. Oxford; Hinds Co.; Tisho- 
mingo Co; Carrollton; Woodville ; Meadville ; Ocean Springs 

(Tracy). May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Viola vicinaUs Greene. Large-Flowered Violet. 

Common in the dry pine barrens. Jones Co.; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison); Biloxi (Tracy). April-May. 



202 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Viola Carolina Greene. Carolina Wood Violet. 

Dry ground (Small). Oxford (Dr. T. P. Bailey); Vicks- 
burg; Woodville. March. 

Allison Herb. 

Viola papilionacea Pursh. (V. eueullata Le Conte) Common 
Wood Violet. 

Common throughout the state. Lafayette Co. ; Benton 
Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Chickasaw Co. ; Hinds Co, March- 
April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Viola villosa Walt. (V. eueullata eordata Gray). Soft Hairy 
Wood Violet. 

Common on damp low shaded soil. Pontotoc Co. ; Carroll 
Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Wayne Co ; Jones Co. ; Forrest Co. March- 
April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Viola sagittata Ait. Arrow-Leaved Violet. 

Dry open woods, usually light soil. Philadelphia ; Morton ; 
Forest. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Viola primulaefolia L. Primrose-Leaved Violet. 

Damp, sour soil, usually in sandy regions. Calhoun Co. 
(Hilg. Ms.); Tishomingo Co.; Wayne Co.; Jones Co.; Jack- 
son ; Hattiesburg ; Landon. April-May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Viola primulaefolia australis Pollard. Southern Primrose- 
Leafed Violet. 

Seems confined mostly to the southern pine belt. Bay St. 
Louis. April. 

Allison Herb. 

Viola lanceolata L. Lance-Leaf Violet. 

Low wet places in the southern counties. Chunky ; Leakes- 
ville. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 203 

Viola imbescens Ait. (V. Pennsylvanica Michx.) Downy Yel- 
low Violet, 

Rich, shaded limestone soils in the northeastern counties. 
Base of limestone bluffs near Eastport; Houston. April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Viola multicaulis (Torr. & Gray) Britton (V. canina multicau- 
lis Gray). Branched Violet. 

Shaded bank.s Starkville (Tracy). April. 

Viola Langloisii Greene. Langlois's Violet. 

Moist woods (Small). Oxford (Dr. T. P. Bailey). April. 

Viola Rafinesquii Greene (V. tenella Raf.) Wild Pansy. 

Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Oxford; Old Rockport. March- 
April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb Allison Herb. 

CUBELIUM Raf. 

Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf. (Solea concolor Ging.) Green 
Violet. 

Rich shaded limestone soil in northeastern counties. East- 
port; Pontotoc Ridge near New Albany. May. 

PASSIFLORACEAE. Passion Flower Family. 

PASSAFLORA L. Passion Flower 

Passiflora incaxnata L. Maypop. Common Passion Flower. 
Very Common in old fields and waste i)laces throughout 
the state. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Passiflora lutea L. Yellow Passion FloAver. 

In low moist thickets throughout the state. Oxford ; Taylor ; 
Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; Forest ; Bay St. Louis. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 



204 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

CACTACEAE. Cactus Family. 
OPUNTIA Mill. Prickly Pear. 

Cpuntia humifusa Raf. (0. Rafinesquii Engelm.) Eafinesque's 
Prickly Pear. 

Throughout the state near dewllings and pastures. Not 
very common. Oxford. April-May. 

Opuntia opuntia (L.) Coult. (0. vulgaris Mill.) Common Prick- 
ly Pear. 

In dry sandy soil throughout the sta-te. Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). May. 

Opuntia pes-corvi Le Conte. Crow-Foot Cactus. 

Drifting sands along the coast (Molir) ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). April-May. 

THYMELEACEAE. Mezereum Family. 

DIRCA L. Moose- Wood. 

Dirca palustris L. Leatherv/ood. 

Rich wooded slopes. Reported in the state by Wailes 
(Agri. and Geol. of Mississippi. B. L. C. Wailes. 1854). 

LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family. 

ROTALA L. 

Rotala ramosior L. Koehne (Ammannia ramosior L.) Branched 
Rotala. 

Lowlands, and bordering ditches. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.). 
July. 

AMANNIA L. 

Ammannia coccinea Rottb. (A. latifolia Torr. & Gray). Scar- 
let Ammannia. 

Wet lowland fields and waste places. Hinds Co. ; War- 
ren Co. August. 

LYTHRUM L. Loosestrife. 

Lythrum alatum Pursh. Wing-Stemmed Loosetrife. 

Amory; Scooba; Grenada; Rosetta; Madison Co. (Hil. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 205 

Ms.) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison). August. 

Allison Herb. 

Ljrthrum lineare L. Linear-Leaved Loosestrife. 

Southern counties to the coast in damp, light soil. West 
Point ; Durant ; Jackson ; Warrentown ; Horn Island. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DECODON J. F. Gmel. 

Becodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. Nesaea verticillata H. B. K.) 
Swamp Loosestrife. 

Edges of swamps and springy places; rare. Lauderdale 
Springs. July-August. 

MELASTOMACEAE. Mala^toma Family. 
KHEXIA L. Meadow Beauty. Deer Grass. 

Rhexia serrulata Nutt. Serrulate-Leaf Deer Grass, 
Low damp pine barrens. Picayune. Summer. 

Rhexia Mariana L. Maryland Meadow Beauty. 

Wet edges of thickets and open marshes. luka ; Oxford ; 
Lost Gap; Grenada; Jackson; Jones Co. (Allison); Tyler- 
town; Bay St. Louis; Ocean Springs and Biloxi (Tracy). 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhexia lanceolata Walt. (R. angustifolia Nutt.). Lance-Leaf 
jMeadow Beauty. 

Damp soil in the lower pine barrens. Chunky; Hurley. 
August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Rhexia Floridana Nash.. Florida Meadow Beauty. 

Damp soils in the southern counties. Bay St. Louis; Ship 
Island. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhexia Virginica L. Virginia Meadow Beauty. 

Low wet open places throughout the state. luka; Lost 



2 06 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Gap; Attala Co. (Hilg Ms) ; Lafayette Co.; Lake Co. (Hilg. 
Ms.) ; Picayune. July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Rhexia g-labella ]\Iichx. Deer Grass. 

Low wet pine barrens. Tylertow^n ; Landon ; Hancock Co. ; 
(Allison). June-July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Rhexia stricta Pursh. Swamp Meadow Beauty. 

Borders of pine barrens and swamps. Gulfport (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey); Lumberton; luka; Picayune; DeKalb. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Rhexia ciliosa Miehx. Fringed Meadow Beauty. 

Low pine barren marshes. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; 
Chunky; Tylertown; McHenry; Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rhexia lutea Walt. Yellow Meadow Beauty. 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast. Waynesboro ; Pica- 
yune ; Landon ; Gulfport ; Back Bay opposite Biloxi ; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). May -June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

ONAGRACEAE. Evening Primrose Family. 
JUSSSIAEA L. 

Jussiaea diffusa Forsk. (J. repens Sw.) Creeping Jussiaea. 
Shallow ponds and ditches. Bay St. Louis. June. 

Allison Herb 

Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.) DC. (Ludwigia decurrens Walt.). 
Def'urrcnt-Leaf Ludwigia. 

Throughout the state in wet places. Oxford; Jackson; 
Amory; Prentiss; Jefferson Co.; Biloxi (Tracy); Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). Summer. 

Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 207 

Jussiaea pilosa H. B. K. (J. leptocarpa Nutt.) Hairy Jussiaea. 
Edges of swamps and wet spring places. Bay St. Louis 
(Allison) ; Poplarville. August. 

Allison Herb. 

Jussiaea Peruviana L. Peruvian Jussieaea. 

Adventive along the coast. Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

LUDWIGIA L. 

Ludwigia altemifolia L. Common Ludwigia. 

Along ditches and in springy places throughout the state. 
Oxford; Bay St. Louis. August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ludwigia altemifolia linearifolia Britton. 

In marshy edges of swamps and thickets. Michigan City ; 
Copiah Co. August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Ludwigia hirtella Raf. (L. pilosa Ell.). Hairy Ludwigia. 

Low coastal pine belt. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Bay St. Louis. 
June. 

Allison Herb. 

Ludwigia alata Ell. Winged Ludwigia. 

Marshes and brooksides along the coast. Ship Island 
(Tracy). Spring. 

Ludwigia virgata Michx. Slender-stemmed Ludwigia. 
Wet sandy pine barrens. Bay St. Louis. May. 

Allison Herb. 

Ludwigia linearis Walt. (L. angustiiolia Michx.). Narrow- 
Leaf Ludwigia. 

Wet sandy soil, especially in the southern counties. Amo- 
ry; Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Bay St. Louis. August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ludwigia Unifolia Poir. Flax-Leaf Ludwigia. 

Borders of pine barren marshes and ponds. Gulfport 
(Tracy). July. 

Ludwigia microcarpa Michx. Small-Fruited Ludwigia. 
Boggy, muddy places (Small). Spring-Fall. 



208 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Ludwigia pilosa Walt. (L. mallis Michx.) Hoary Ludwigia. 
Wet, marshy borders of thickets. Bay St. Louis. July. 

Allison Herb. 

ISNARDIA L. 

Isnardia palustris L. (Lndiwigia palustris Ell.) Water Purslane. 
In miry and marshy places throughout the state. Oxford ; 
Jackson; Amite Co. (Allison). June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

ONAGRA Adans. 

Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. (Oenothera biennis L.) Common 
Evening Primrose. 

Common in old fields, pastures, and cultivated grounds. 
Oxford ; Jackson ; Winona. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

OENOTHERA L. 

Oenothera humifusa Xutt. (0. sinuata humifusa Torr. & Gray). 
Seaside Evening Primrose. 

Sands along the beach aiid near the coast. Gulfport; 
Biloxi ; Petit Bois Island. April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Oenothera sinuata L. Mant. (0. laciniata Hill). Sinuate-Leaf 
Evening Primrose. 

Dry sandy soil throughout the state. Oxford; Jackson; 
Newton; Tishomingo Co.; Amite Co.; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son). April-May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Oenothera laciniata grandis Britton (0. sinuata grandiflora 
Wats.) 

Northeastern counties (Mohr). September-October. 
Oenothera triloba Nutt. (Lavauxia triloba Spach.) Prairie 
Evening Primrose. 

Common locally on the limestone soils of northeast Missis- 
sippi. Okolona; Wheeler. April-May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 209 

KNEIFFIA Spach. 

Kneiffia fmticosa (L.) Raim. (Oenothera fruticosa L.). Sun- 
diops. 

Open woods and dry soils. Ripley; Grenada; Starkville 
(Tracy) ; Smith Co.; Chunky; Hattiesburg. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Kneiflia linearis ^liehx. Spach. (Oenothera linearis Michx.). 
riiie i.airens Sundrops. 

Dry pine barrens near the coast. (Reported in Hilgard 
Manuscript from Rankin county). June. 

Kneiffia iinifolia (Xutt.) Spach. (Oenothera linifolia Nutt.). 
Flax-Leaf Sundrops. 

Dry open woods and pastures. Jackson (T. P. Bailey) ; 
Tishomingo Co. (Allison). Spring and summer. 

Allison Herb. 

HART.AIANNIA Spach. 

Eartirannia speciosa (Nutt.) Small (Oenothera speciosa Nutt.) 
Prairie Ilartmannia. 

Open soil, espcia.ly in prairies. Oxford; Newton; Artesia; 
Macon : Jackson. April-June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

GAURA L. 

Gaura an^stifolia ]\Iichx. Narrow-Leaf Gaura. 

Dry sands along the shore. Biloxi (Tracy). August. 

Gaura biennis L. Common Gaura. 

Dry open .'^oil, usuaJy in edges of fields and pastures, 
Jackson. Summer. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Gauia MichaiTxii Spach. (G. filipes Spach.) Michaux's Gaura. 
Dry sandy open woods. Oxford ; .Jackson ; Laurel. July- 
September. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Garra longi^icra Spach. (G. biennis Pitcheri, Torr. & Gray). 
Pitcher's Gaura. 

Dry sandy soil (Small). Spring and summer. 



210 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Gaura filifonnis Small. Filiform Gaura. 
Sandy soil (Small). Summer to fall. 

CIRCAEA L. 

Circaea lutetiana L. Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Rich moist woods, usually in deep shade. Pontotoc Ridge 
near Ripley; New Albany; Taylor; Pontotoc; Eastport; 
Booneville ; Warren Co. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HALORAGIDACEAE. Water Milfoil Family. 

PROSERPINACA L. Mermaid Weed. 

Proserpinaca palustris L. Swamp Mermaid Weed. 

Stagnant ponds and ditches throughout the state. Coastal 
Islands (Tracy). May-June. 

Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. Comb Mermaid Weed. 

Pine barren swamps near the coast. Hattiesburg, May. 

MYRIOPHYLLUM L. 

Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Southern Water Milfoil. 

Still water and slow-flowing streams. Oxford; Hatties- 
burg. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

ARALIACEAE. Ginseng Family. 

ARALIA 1j. 

Aralia rasemosa L. Spikenard. 

Rich woodlands on limey soils. Eastport ; Itawamba Co. ; 
Hatchie Hills; Ripley; Columbus. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Aralia spinosa L. Angelica Tree. 

Borders of woods on rich soils. Itawamba Co. ; Michigan 
City; Copiah Co.; Amite Co. (Allison). June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PANAX L. Ginseng. 
Panax quinquefolia L. Aralia quinquefolia Decaisne). 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 211 

Rich wooded slopes, mostly on limey soils. Itawamba Co. ; 
Booneville ; loess bluffs at Tocowa, Panola Co. ; Madison Co. 
(Allison, oral commimication). May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 



APIACEAE... Parsley Family. 
DAUCUS I.. Carrot. 

Daucus pusillus Mielix. Wild Carrot. 

Dry pastures and old fields throughout the state. Tisho- 
mingo Co.; Lafayette Co.; Tupelo (Tracy); Warren Co.; 
Amite Co. June. 

TREPOCARPUS Nutt. 

Trepocarpus aethusae Nutt. 

Damp shaded borders of fields. Strakville (Tracy). May- 
June. 

ANGELICA L. 

Angelica villosa (Walt.) B. S. P. (A. hirsuta Muhl.). Hairy 
Angelica. 

Borders of dry wooded hillslopes. Oxford; Waynesboro 
(Pollard) ; Lincon Co. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

OXYPOLIS Raf. 

Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britton (Tiedemannia teretifolia 
DC.) False Drop wort. 

Wet borders of swamps, more common in the pine regions 
toward the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Ocean Springs (Skehon) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). 

Allison Herb. 

Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf. (Slum rigidius L.) Cowbane. 

Wet banks of pine barren streams. Waynesboro (Pol- 
lard) ; Jones Co.; Bay St. Louis. July. 

Allison Herb. 



212 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

POLYTAENIA DC. 

Polytaenia Nuttallii DC. (Tordylium Americanum Nutt.) Nut- 
tail's Polytaenia. 

Prairie region (Mohr). Calhoun Co. (Hilg. Ms.). July. 

THASPIUM Nutt. Meadow Parsnip. 

Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt. (Ligusticum barbinode 
Michx.). Barbed Meadow Parsnip. 

Shaded banks in the prairie region. Okolona. April-May. 

Thaspium trifoliatum aureum (Walt.) Britton (Thaspium au- 
rem Nutt.) Go. den Alexander. 

Dry copses on hillslopes. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; 
Itawamba Co. ; Ripley ; West Point ; New Albany Starkville 
(Phares) ; Oxford; Jackson. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CYNOSCYADIUM DC. 

Cynoscyadium piimatmn DC. Dog Parsley. 
Dry hillslopes. Meridian. August. 

ERYNGIUM L. 

Eryngium yuccaefolium Michx. (E. aquatica L. Button 
Snakeroot. 

Dry upland old fields, pastures and open woods. Oxford; 
Taylor; Jackson. July-August. 

Eryngium cynchaetum (Gray), Coult. & Ro?e. (E. yuccaefol- 
ium synchaetum Gray) Narrow-Leaf Button Snakeroot. 

Low damp pine barrens. Landon ; Gulfport; Ocean 
Springs; Biloxi (Tracy); Bay St. Louis (Allison). June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Eryngium Virginianum Lam. Virgina Snakeroot. 
Swamps and margins of ponds. Jones Co. 

Allison Herb 

Eryngium integrifolium Walt. (E. Virgatum Lam). Blue- 
Flowered Eryngo. 

Common in damp pine barrens. Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.; ; 



Ko. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 213 

Oxford; Winona; Hattiesburg; Prentiss; Liberty; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Er) n;;iiim pros'ratmn Nntt. (E. Baldwinii Torr. & Gray) 
rVeeping Erin go. 

F.h;:d. dan p soil throughout the state. Oxford ; Lost Gap ; 
' inds Co. ; AVarren Co. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SANICULA L. Saniele. 

SonicvJa Maiilandica L. Maryland Sani-.-le. 

. ieli upland woods and eops-es; apparently more common 
in t .e northern counties. Fulton; Lafayette Co.; Hinds Co.; 
Amte Co.; Bay St. Louis. ]\Iay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ci-nicu^a Canadensis L. Canada Saniele. 

l-ich upland wooded slopes. Tishomingo Co.; West Point; 
yew Al'umy; Lost Gap; Lafayette Co.; Pontotoc Co.; Tippah 
Co : T'inds Co.; Warren Co.; Starkville (Tracy); Bay St. 
! ouis (Al ison). 

Geol. Sur. Herb. Allison Herb. 

wanicv."'a ricridana Pickn. Florida Saniele. 

""es mbles Candensis, but considered by Small as distinct, 
^^ndv wooded slopes (Small.) Spring and summer. 

^auJcula Sirallii Bickn. Small's Saniele. 
rich wooded slopes (Small). Summer. 

CHAEEOPHYLLUM L. 

'haeropbyUvm procumbens (L.) Crantz (Scandix- proeumbens 
^ . AVild Chervil. 

O'v-n woods and copses (Mohr). April. 

Caere phylum da-ycarpmn Nutt. 

■ rnirics and hillsides (Small) ; Biloxi (Tracy). Spring. 

Chaerophyllum Tainturieri Hook. Tainturier's Chervil. 

Shaded borders of fields. Starkville (Phares) ; Jackson 
(Phares). April. 



214 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [BulL 

LILAEOPSIS Greene. 

Lilaeopsis lineata (Michx.) Green (Crantzia lineata Nutt.) 
Crantzia. 

Salt and brackish marshes along the coast. Gulfport; 
Biloxi. July. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

APIUM L. 

ApiiJm ammi (L.) Urban (Sisson ammi L.) Marsh Parsley. 
Borders of low fields; common toward the coast. Amite 
County. May. 

Allison Herb. 

ERIGENIA Nutt. 

Erig-enia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. (Sison bulbosum Michx.) 
Harbinger of Spring. 

Rich wooded slopes in limestone soil. Pontotoc Ridge near 
New Albany. Rare. February-April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb, 

ZIZIA Koch. 

Zizia aurea (L.) Koch. Golden Meadow Parsnip. 
j\Ieadows and swamps. Montrose. April-June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

CICUTA L. 

Cicuta maculata L. Water Hemlock. 

Swamps and wet meadows. Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey) ; 
^lichigan City. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Cicuta Curtisii Coult. & Rose. Curtis 's Water Hemlock. 

Swamps throughout the state, perhaps. Madison Co. 
(Phares). 

DERINGA Adans. 

£*erino-a Canadensis (L.) Kuntze (Sison Canadensis L.) Horn- 
wort. - 



MO. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 215 

Damp woodlands. Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Pontotoc. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SPERMOLEPIS Raf. 

Spermolepis divaxicatus (Walt.) Britton (Daucus divaricatus 
Walt.). Spreading Spermolepis. 

Sandy soil in the southern pine belt to the coast. Ocean 
Springs (Tracy). May, 

Spermolepis echinatus (Nutt.) Britton (Leptolepis echinatus 
Nutt.). 

Southern pine region to the coast. Cat Island (Tracy). 
May. 

PTILIMNIUM Raf. 

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. (Discopleura capillacea 
DC.) Mock Bishop's Weed. 

Along ditches and marshy places. West Point; Oxford; 
Madison (Phares) ; Ocean Springs (Tracy). May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Ptilimnium Nuttallii (DC) Nuttall's Bishop's Weed. 
Damp sandy and gravelly soils. Oxford. July. 

HYDROCOTYLE L. Pennywort. 

Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Water Pennywort. 

Edges of stagnant pools; marshy places near the coast. 
Woodville; Pascagoula; Gulfport; Bay St. Louis (Allison); 
Cat Island (Tracy). May. 

Geol. Sur, Herb. Allison Herb. 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb, (H. interrupta Muhl,) 
Whorled Pennywort. 

Marshes and edges of ponds and stagnant streams. Simp- 
son Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Rodney (Dr. Perviance) ; Hinds Co.; 
Coastal region (Tracy), May. 

Geol. Sur, Herb. 

Hydrocotyle Canbyi Coult. & Rose. Canby's Pennywort. 

Marshy and miry borders of ponds. Hinds Co. ; Gulfport. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



216 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Hydrocotyle Bonariensis Lam. 

Marshes along the coast. Biloxi ; Gulfport. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. Crowfoot-like Pennywort. 

Stagnant pools and ditches. Greenwood; Bay St. Louis; 
Deer Island. 

CENTELLA L. 

Centella Asiatica (L.) Urban (Hydrocotyle repanda Pers.). 
Asiatic Pennywort. 

Marshes and borders of pools; abundant a'ong the coast; 
Biloxi; Gulfport; Bay St. Louis (Allison); Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). May. Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CORN ACE AE. Dogwood Family 

CORNUS L. Dogwood. 

Comus stricta Lam. (C. fastigiata Michx.). Stiff Dogwood. 
Low damp ground along streams. Oxford ; Taylor. May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Comus amomum :\Iill. (C. sericea) Siiky-Leaf Swamp Dog- 
wood. 
Low swamps along streams. Starkville (Tracy). ^May. 

Comus asperifolium Michx. 

Thickets on dry limestone soil. Okolona; Jackson. May 

Comus Florida L. Flowering Dogwood. 

Throughout the state in dry upland woods. Oxford ; Tisho- 
mingo Co. (Allison) ; CarroKton : Hinds Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

NYSSA L. 

Nyssa sylvatica :\larsh. (N. multifiora L.) Highland Black 
Gum. 

Upland forests throughout the state. April. 

Allison Herb 

Nyssa biflora Walt. (N. sylvatica biflora Sarg.) Southern Black 
Gum. 



\o. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 217 

S\vampy borders of streams, especially in the southern 
pine belt. Oxford. April. 

Nyssa aquatica L. (X. imiflora Wang.) Tupelo Gum. 

Common in deep swamps of large streams throughout the 
state. Less common in the northern counties. 

SYMPETALAE 
PYROLACEAE. Pyrola Family. 
CHIMAPHILA Pursh. Wintergreen. 

CMr^aphilairacuIa'a (L.) Pursh. (Pyrola maculata L.) Spot- 
trd Wintergreen. 

la-'h wooded slopes (Small). Probably limited to the 
northeast counties. Summer. 

MONOTROPACEAE. Pinesap Family. 
MONOTROPA L. 

fsronotropa uniflora L. Indian Pipe. 

Not common under forests, particularly pine forests. 
Hinds Co. ; Lauderdale Co. ; Smith Co. ; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son ) . September. 

Allison Herb. 

ERICACEAE. Heath Family. 
AZALEA L. 

Aralea viscosa Pursh. Clammy Azalea. 

Swamps and stream banks; more common in the southern 
counties; middle counties (Hilg. Ms.); Hattiesburg; Wood- 
ville; Picayune; Bay St. Louis (Allison). June. 

Azalea nudiflora L. Purple Azalea. 

Pock ledges and copses throughout the state. Not common 
in loess region. Ea^tport; Amory; Lost Gap; Lauderdale 
Co. ; Scott Co. ; Hattiesburg ; Clarke Co. Wayne Co. ; Wilkin- 
son Co. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



218 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [BulL 

kai:,::al. 

Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain Laurel. Calico Bush. 

Kocky woodlands for ll:e most part in eastern part of the 
state. Seems never to oc^ur in the loess region. Eastport; 
Hattiesburg; Ocean Springs (Tracy). April-May. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Kalmia hirsuta Walt. Wicky. 

Low sandy pine barrens (Mohr). May. 

LEUCOTHOE Don. 

Leucothoe axillaris (Lam.) Don (Andromeda axillaris Lam.) 
Downy Feter-Bush. 

Swamp thickets and stream borders (Mohr) Smith Co. 
(Hilg. Ms.). May. 

Leucothoe racemosa (L.) (Andromeda racemosa L.) Race- 
mose Fetter-Bush. 

Southern pine regions near the coast. April. 

Leucothoe platyphylla Small. 

Low moist thickets (Small), Spring. 

PIERIS Don. 

Pieris nitida (Bartr.) Benth. & Hook. (Andromeda nitida 
Bartr.) Shining Fetter-Bush. 

Open boggy pine barrens. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Hat- 
tiesburg ; Landon ; Ocean Springs ; Biloxi ; Pascagoula. April. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

OXYDENDPtUM DC. 

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) (Andromeda arborea L.) Sour- 
wood. 

Dry or damp upland woods. Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.). 
Tishomingo Co. ; Itawamba Co. ; Wilkinson Co. ; Hancock Co. 
(Allison). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

EPIGAEA L. 

Epig-aea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 219 

In rocky woods. Found in Tishomingo County (Allison). 
February-March. 

Allison Herb. 

VACCINIACEAE. Huckleberry Family. 

GAYLUSSACIA H, B. K. 

Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) Torr. & Gray. Tangleberry. 
Kocky upland ridges. Tishomingo Co 

Geol. Sur. Herb, 

Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Torr. & Gray (Vaccinium dumo- 
sum Andr.) Dwarf Huckleberry. 

In sandy pine barren swamps. Picayune ; Landon ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). April. 

Gaylussacia hirtella (Ait. f.) Klotzaeh (G. dumosa hirtella 
Gray) Hairy Huckleberry. 

Low wet borders of pine barren streams. Biloxi (Tracy). 
May. 

Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) Torr. & Gray (Vaccinium resnosum 
Ait.) 

Uplands dry open woods near Tennessee river. May. 

VACCINIUM L. 

Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. Farkleberry. 

Dry sandy upland woods throughout the state. Tisho- 
mingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Franklin Co. ; Cat 
Island (Tracy). April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb- 

Vaccinium myrsinites glaucum Gray. Pale Evergreen Blue- 
berry. 

Barren rocky hills and dry pine lands (Mohr). April. 

Vaccinium EUiottii Chapm. (V. myrtilloides Ell.) Elliott's 
Blueberry. 
Low thickets in damp sandy soil. 

Vaccinium tenellum Ait. (V. virgatum tenellum Gray). Gale- 
Leaf Blueberry. 

Shady copes in sandy soil. Pine regions (Small). April. 



220 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Vaccinium vacirans Ka]ra. J ( w Blueberry. 

Open woodlands on try sandy or rocky uplands. Tisho- 
mingo Co. April. 

Allison Herb. 

Vaccinium corymbosum L. Common Blueberry. 

In low rich ground and springs; more common in the 
northern counties. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Carroll- 
ton; Jackson; Biloxi. Apiil. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Vaccinium fuscatum Ait. (V. corymbosum fuscatum Gray) 
Fuscous Blueberry. 

Shaded dry, sandy banks near streams and swamps 
(Mohr.) March. 

POLYCODIUM Raf. 

Polycodium stamineum (L.) Greene (Vaccinium stamineum L.) 
Deer Berry. Squaw Berry. 

In dry or damp shaded sandy soil throughout the state. 
Rare in loess region. Tishomingo Co. ; Tippah Co. ; Lafayette 
Co.; Morton; Ocean Springs (Tracy). April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Polycodium neglectum Small. 

Open woods and thickets (Small). 

PRIMULACEAE. Primro-e Family. 
HOTTONIA L. 

Hottonia inflata Ell. Water Violet. 

Floating on stagnant or slowly flowing water. Southern 
counties (Mohr.) May. 

SAMOLUS L. 

Samolus floribundus H. B. K. (S. valerandi americana Gray;. 
Water Pimpernel. 

Wet shady woods throughout the state. Lafayette Co.; 
Hinds Co. April. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 221 

STEIRONEMA Raf. 

Steironema cilia turn (L.) Raf. (Lysimachia ciliata L.) Fringe- 
Leaf Loosestrife. 

Low damp tl.ickets throughout the state. Ripley; Ponto- 
toc ; Oxford ; Jackson ; Lucedale. June. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

Steironema lanceolatum (Walt.) Gray (Lysimachia lanceola- 
tum Walt.). Lance-Leaf Loosestrife. 

Damp shaded soil, borders of woods. Coastal pine belt 
(IMohr) ; jMadison Co. (Hilg. ]\Is.). Summer. 

Steironema he-erophyllum (Miehx.) Raf. 
Woods and meadows (Small). Summer. 

Eteironema radicans (Hook.) Gray (^Lysimachia radicans 
Hook.) Trailing Loosestrife. 

Low sladid sAvamns. Columbia; w^estern Lafayette Co.; 
Wilkinson Co. June-August. 

Geol. Sur. Herb. 

ANAGALLIS L. 

A.nag"allis arvensis L. Common Pimpernel. 

Damp tiats in the pme barrens near the coast; (Adv.) 
Pascagoula. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DODECATHEON L. 

Dodecatheon meadia L. Shooting Star. American Cowslip. 
Low moist woods; rare; seen only in the vicinity of the 
State University. May-June. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE. Leadwort FamUy. 
LLAIONIUM Adaus. 

Limonium Carolinianum (Walt.) Britton (Statice Carolinia- 
num Walt.) iNlarsh Rosemary. 

Salt marshes along the coast and Coastal Islands. Stark- 
ville (Tracy) ; along the coast (Tracy) ; Cat Island. Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



222 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Limonium Nashii Small. Nash's Marsh Rosemary. 
Salt marshes along the coast (Small). 

SAPOTACEAE. Sapodilla Fajnily. 

BUMELIA Sw. 

Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. Sideroxylon lycioides L.). South- 
ern Buckthorn. 

Dry open woods and copses; more common on calcareous 
soils. Jackson ; Yazoo City ; Grenada. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DIOSPYROS L. 

Diospyros Virginiana L. Persimmon. 

Common throughout the state in old fields; occasionally in 
deep river swamps. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds 
Co. ; Copiah Co. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

STYRACACEAE. Storax Family. 

Mohrodendron Carolinianmn (L.) Britton (Halesia tetraptera 
L.) Carolina Silverbell Tree. 

Wooded banks of streams ; Hinds Co. ; Amite Co. ; Wilk- 
inson Co.; Chunky; Newton Co.; perhaps throughout the 
state. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Mohrodendron dipterum (L.) Britt. (Halesia diptera L.) 
Southern Silverbell. 

Low wooded stream banks. Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; 
Woodville; Rosetta. April. 

STYRAX L. 

Styrax Americana Lam. (S. glabrum Michx.) American So- 
rax. 

North Mississippi (Hilgard) ; Lafayette Co.; Jones Co. 
(Allison); Hattiesburg; Gulfport. Low wet thickets along 
streams. ]\Iarch and April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17 J FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 223 

Styrax gTandifolia Ait. (S. grandiflorum Michx.) Large-Flow- 
ered Storax. 

Tishomingo Co. ; Amite Co. ; Waynesboro. Moist, rich lower 
slopes and stream courses. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

SYMPLOCACEAE. Sweetleaf Family. 

SYMPLOCOS L. 

Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Her. (Hopea tinctoria L.) Sweet- 
leaf. Horse Sugar. 

Low woods and stream bottoms Ocean Springs (Tracy) ; 
Carroll Co. (Hilgard) ; LowTides Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds 
Co. ; Forrest Co. ; Durant ; Chunky ; Woodville ; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

OLE ACE AE. Olive Family. 
FRAXINUS L. Ash. 

Fraxinus Americana L. (F. alba Marsh.) White Ash. 

Low, rich grounds throughout the state. Tishomingo Co. 
(Allison). March-April. 

Allison Herb. 

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica ]\Iarsh (F. pubscens Lam.) 

Low woods and stream bottoms. Yazoo Delta (A. B. Hurt.) 

Fraxinus Caroliniana Mill. (F. platycarpa Michx.) Water Ash. 
Low shaded swamps. Forrest Co. February. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Fraxinus quadrangnlata Michx. Blue Ash. 

In limestone soil of northeast counties. Starkville (Tracy). 
May. 

CHIONANTHUS L. 

Chionanthus Virginica L. Fringe Tree. Grandsire Graybeard. 
Low rich woods. Scott Co. ; Forrest Co. ; Jones Co. ; 
Wayne Co. ; New Augusta ; Montrose ; Chunky ; Mendenhall ; 
April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



224 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

OSMANTHUS Lour. 

Osmanthus Americana (L.) B. & H. (O.ea Americana L.) Amer- 
ican Olive. Devil Wood, 

Low wet woods along streams. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Rodney 
(Hilg. Ms.) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison). 

Allison Herb. 



LOGANIACEAE. Logania Family. 

GELSEMIUM Juss. 

Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Ait. f. (Bigonia sempervirens L.) 
Yellow Jessamine. 

Low grounds along streams throughout the state; but 
rather rare in the northern counties ; very common along low 
pine barrens streams in the southern counties. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SPIGELIA L. 

Splgelia Marilandica L. (Ijonicera Marilandica L.) Pink Root. 
Rich, open wooded slopes throughout the state ; not com- 
mon in the low sandy soils of the southern counties. New 
Albany ; West Point ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Itawamba 
Co.; Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Hattiesburg; Meadville. May 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CYNOCTONUM J. C. Gmelin. 

Cynoctonum mitreola (L.) Britton (IMitreola petiolata Torr. 
Gray) 
Wet springy banks. Ocean Springs (Tracy). July. 
Cynoctonum sessilifolium (Walt.) J. G. Gme in (Mitreela ses- 
silifolia Torr. & Gray) Sessile-Leaf Mitrewort. 

Low springy places in pine barrens. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). June. 

Allison Herb. 

POLYPREMUM L. 

Polypremum procumbens L. Procumbent Polypremum. 

Sandy pastures and old fields. Bay St. Louis. August. 

Allison Herb. 



Ko. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 225 

GENTIANACAEAE. Gentian FamHy. - 
SABBATIA Adans. Centaury. 

Sabbatia macrophylla Hook. Large-Leaf Centaury. 

Open savannas and pine barren swamps. Bay St. Louis 
(Allison) ; Waynesboro; Picayune; Landon; Gulfport. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Sabbatia angustifolia (Mich.) Britton (S. brachiata Ell.) 
White-flowered American Centaury. 
Dry open pine woods. North Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sabbatia angularis (L.) Pursh. (Chironia angularis L.) Ameri- 
can Centaury. 

Perhaps throughout the state in rich damp woodlands. 
Starkville (Tracy); Oxford; Jackson; Rodney (Hilg. Ms.); 
Jones Co.; Amite Co. (Allison). June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Sabbatia Calycina (Lam.) Heller (S. Calyeosa Pursh.) Calycine 
Sabbatia. 

Rich swampy bottoms. Madison Co. (Hilg. Ms.). August. 

Sabbatia stellaris Pursh. (S. gracilis Ell.) Seaside Sabbatia. 
Seaside meadoAvs occasionally overfl'^wed by tides. Coast- 
al Islands (Tracy); Bay St. Louis (Allison). July- August. 

Allison Herb. 

Sabbatia campanulata (L.) Torr. (S. gracilis Michx.) Slender 
Sabbatia. 

LoAv rich banks, especially southward. Bay St. Louis (Al- 
lison) ; Gufport; Tylertown. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Sabbatia dodecandra (L.) B. S. P. (S. chloroides Pursh.) 
Large-flowered Sabbatia. 

Pine barren swamps and pond borders. State Line. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



226 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Sabbatia g"entianoides Ell. Gentiau-like Sabbatia. 

Low damp piue barrens. Hancock Co. (Allison) ; Gulfport; 
Hurley; Picayune. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

GENTIANA L. Gentian. 

Gentiana saponaria L. (G. catesbaei AValt.) Soapwort Gentian. 
Rich shaded slopes. Lafayette Co. November. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gentiana Elliottii Chapm. (G. Catesbaei Ell.) Blue Sampson's 
Snake Root. 
Rich wooded slopes. Jones Co. (Allison) ; Brookhaven. 

Allison Herb. 

Gentiana villosa L. (G. ochroleuca Froel.) Sampson's Snake 
Root. 

Rather dry wooded slopes. Oxford ; Decatur. November. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gentiana Andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian. 

Damp upland woods. Northern Lafayette and Tippah 
Counties. November. 

FRASERA Walt. 

Frasera Carolinensis Walt. American Colombo. 

Rich upland forests. Eubank 's Creek, north of Asylum at 
Jackson. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

OBOLARIA L. 

Obolaria Virginica (L.) Pennywort. 

.Aloist open wooded slopes. Pontotoc Ridge, near New Al- 
bany. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BARTONIA Muhl. 

Eartonia Virginica (L.) B. S. P. (B. tenella Muhl.) Autumnal 
Bartouia. 

Wet springy places in pine barrens swamps. Hurley. Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 227 

Bartonia verna (^liehx.) (Centanrella vei^ua Michx.) Vernal 
Bartoiiia. 

Low wet pine barrens under low bushes. South Missis- 
sippi (Mohr). February. 

LIMNANTHEMUM S. G. Gmel. 

Limnanthemum lacunosum (Vent.) Griseb. (Villarsia cordata 
Ell.) Pitted Floating Heart. 

Ponds in the lower pine barrens (Mohr). March-April. 

APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family. 
AMSONIA Walt. 

Amsonia amscnia (L.) Britt. (Amsonia Tabernaemontana 
Walt.) 

Rich, shady limestone slopes. Tishomingo Co. ; Okolona ; 
Ripley: Columbus. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

APOCYNUM L. 

Apocynmi^ cannabinmn L. Indian Hemp. 

Damp open places, often along railroad tracks. Ripley; 
Oxford; Jackson. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TRACHELOSPERMUM Lemair. 

Trachelospermum difforme (Walt.) Gray (Echites ditformis 
Walt.) Climbing Dogbane. 

Damp slopes and alluvial lands, climbing over bushes. La- 
fayette Co.; Leake Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Canton; Hattiesburg. 
June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VINCA L. 

Vinca minor L. Periwinkle. 

Introduced, but growing wild about old gardens, fences 
and graveyards. All spring and summer. Oxford; Carroll- 
ton ; Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



228 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

ASCLEPIDIADACEAE. Milkweed Family. 

ASCELPIAS L. Milkweed. 

Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterfly Weed. Pleurisy Root. 

Open uplands and pastures over the state. Eastport; Rip- 
ley ; AVest Point ; Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Madison Co. ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). May- June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias phytolaccoides Pursh. Poke MJkAveed. 
Moist shady woods. (Doubtful here) Hilg. Ms. 

Asclepias cinerea Walt. Hoary Milkwe 1. 

Dry open pine lands. Chunky; S^^ate Line; Picayune. 
Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias angustifolia Ell. (A. Michauxii Decsne.) Fragrant 
Milkweed. 

Low sandy pine barrens. Back Bay, Biloxi. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias lanceolata Walt. (A. paupercula Michx.) Marsh 
IMilkweed. 

Boggy pine barrens ; salt marshes. Pascagoula Bay ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison) ; Picayune. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Asclepias purpurascens L. Purple Milkweed. 

Thickets and borders of woods. Horn Lake. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias obtusifolia Michx. (A. purpurascens Walt.) Obtuse- 
leaved j\lilkM'eed. 

Dry, open upland woods. Lafayette Co.; Jones Co. (Al- 
lison). June. 

Allison Herb. 
Asclepias humistrata Walt. (A. araplexieaulis Michx.) Rab- 
bit's Milkweed. 

Dry sandy soil in pine barrens. Coastal Islands (Tracy) ; 
Chunky; Hattiesburg. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 229 

Asclepias variegata L. Variegated Milkweed. 

Dry open Moods and borders of fields; Oxford; Jackson; 
iMorton; DeKalb ; Brookhaven; Meadville. May. 

Asclepias rubra L. Tall Milkweed. 

AVet sandy marshes. Very tall, 5-6 feet. Lost gap; Mc- 
Henry. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias perei lis Walt. (A. parvifiora Ait.) Swamp Milk- 
weed. 

Low wet riVer swamps. Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; Jackson 

Co. (Hilg. Ms.>; Taylor; Canton; Grenada; Roxey. Summer. 

•;,9 Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias verticillata L. Whorled Milkweed. 

Dry sandy upland soil. Philadelphia; Laurel. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Asclepias verticillata linearis (Scheele) Pollard (A. linerais 
Scheele). Narrow-Leaf Whorled Milkweed. 
Damp woods in prairies (Mohr). July. 

ACERATES Ell. 

Acerates Floridana (Lam.) A. S. Hitchcock (A. longifolia lEl.) 
Florida Green Milkweed. 

Damp open pastures and fields. Jackson; Bay St. Louis 
(Allison). April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Acerate? viridiflora Raf. (Eaton; Broad-leaf Green Milkweed.) 
Dry, sterile soil. Jackson ; W^inona. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ASCLEPIODORA Gray. 

Asclepiodora viridis (Walt.) Gray (Asclepias viridis Walt.) 
Dry open fields and pastures on calcareous prairie soils. 
Jackson; Columbus. April-]\Iay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ANATHERIX Nutt. 

Anantherix connivens Gray. 



230 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

AVet pine barrens. Hattiesburg. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

AMPELANUS Eaf. 

Ampelanus albidus (Nutt.) Britton (Enslenia albida Nutt.) 
Sand Vine. 
River banks, climbing over shrubs. Greenwood. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CYNANCHUM L. 

Cynanchum palustre (Pursh) Heller (Seutera maritima 
Decsne.) Seaside Winding Milkweed. 

Borders of salt marshes. Cat Island. Very common. June. 

AMPHISTELMA Griseb. 

Amphistelma filiforme Griseb. 

Dry soil near the coast. Biloxi. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VINCETOXICUM Walt. 

Vincetoxicum gonocarpusWalt. ( Gonolobus macrophyllus 
Miehx.) Smooth Angle-Pod. 

Along wooded river banks and side hill slopes. Spring to 
Summer. 

Vincetoxicum hirsutum (I\Iichx.) Britt. Gonolobus flavidulus 
Chapm.) Hirsute Angle-Pod. 

On rich wooded slopes , climbing on bushes. Pontotoc ; 
West Point; Jackson; Starkville (Tracy) ; Clinton (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey). May- June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Vincetoxicum Baldwinianum (Sweet) Britt. 

Thickets and rich copses. Carroll Co. (Hilg. Ms.; Star- 
kville (Tracy). Spring and summer. 

Hedge rowe and cultivated field?. Simpson Co. (Hilg.). 

CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning Glory Family. 

IPOMEOEA L. 

Impomoea coccinea L. Scarlet Morning Glory. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 231 

Hedge rows and cultivated fields. Simpson Co. (Hilg. 
Ms.) Lafayette Co. August Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ipomoea barbigera Sweet. Bind-weed. Tie Vine. 
Mississippi (Mohr) August. 

Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. Ivy-leaf Morning Glory. 

In cultivated fields throughout the state, and in thickets. 

Oxford. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. (Convolvus purpureus L.) Com- 
mon Purple Morning Glory. 

Cultivated ground throughout the state, especially on low- 
lands. August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Impoea pres-caprae (L.) Sweet (Convolvulus pres-caprae L.) 
Goat's-foot Seaside Ipomoea. 

Littoral, especially on damp lower slopes of sand dunes. 
Coastal Islands. July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ipomoea acetosaefolia (Vahl.) Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulus 
acetosaefolius Vahl.) White-blooming Seaside Ipomoea. 
Littoral sand plains. Coastal Islands . July-Aug. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Meyer (Convolvulus panduratus L.). 
Wild Potato. 

Throughout the state in light rich soil in fields and open 
woods. Pontotoc; Grenada; Lost Gap; Oxford; Jackson. 
July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Ipomoea sagittata Poir. (Convolvulus speciosus Walt.) Arrow- 
leaf Morning Glory. 

Littoral, in brackish and salt marshes. Coastal Islands 
(Petit Bois Island); Biloxi; Bay St. Louis. July -August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



232 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Ipomoea Carolina i L. i Pursh. (Convolvulus Carolinus L.) 
Carolina ]\Ioruing Glory. 

Thickets and fields, in rich moist soil. Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). October. 

JACQUEMONTIA Chois. 

Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. (Impomoea tamnifolia 
L.) Blue-flowered Bind-weed. 

Cultivated fields in rich moist soil. Lawrence Co. (Hilg.). 
Perhaps throughout the state. July. 

BREWERIA R. Brown 

Breweria humistrata (Walt.) Gray (Stylisma humistrata 
Chapm., 1st edition) Low Breweria. 

Dry light soil ; more common southward in the pine regions. 
Lowndes Co. (Tracy): West Point; Wayne Co.; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Breweria acqutica (Walt.) Gray (Stylisma aquatica Chapm., 
1st Ed.j Aquatic Breweria. 

Low damp soil in pine woods. Lost Gap ; Chunky. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CONVOLVULUS L. 

Convolvulus repens L. (C. sepium var. repens Gray) Creeping 
Bindweed. 

Damp shaded thickets. Oxford (Dr. T. P. Bailey) ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). April-May. 

Allison Herb. 

DICHONDRA Forst. 

Dichondra evolvulacea (L. f.) Britton (D. repens Forst.) Caro- 
lina Dichondra. 

Open, damp grassy plats throughout the state. Oxford; 
Jackson; Morton; Hattiesburg. April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 233 

CUSCUTACEAE. Dodder Family. 

CUSCUTA L. Dodder, or Love Vine. 

Cuscuta arvensis Beyrieh, Field Dodder. 

Light sandy soil in fields and openings. Coastal Islands 
(Tracy). June- August. 

Cuscuta Gronovii Willd. Large Love Vine. 

Throughout the state in low damp thickets. Coastal Is- 
lands (Tracy). eTuly-September. 

Cuscuta compacta Juss. Compact-flowered Love Vine. 

Low damp thickets throughout the state. Jackson (T. P. 
Bailey) ; Oxford. Autumn. 

Cuscuta glomerata Chois. 

Low rich ground in open fields. Lafayette Co. 

POLEMONIACEAE. Phlox Family 
PHLOX L. 

Phlox paniculata L. Sweet William. 

Thickets and rich woods. Starkville (Tracy) ; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison) ; Ripley; Booneville ; Batesville; Yazoo City. 
July-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Phlox maculata L. (P. pyramidalis Smith) Spotted Phlox. 
Low wet woods. Ripley ; Oxford ; Jackson. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Phlox g'laberrima L. Smooth Phlox. 

Dry open woods. Lafayette Co. (Hilg.) ; luka; Grenada; 
Canton; Shubuta; Gulfport. May -July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Phlox pilosa L. (P. aristata Mielix.) Hairy Phlox. 

Dry thickets and open woods. Oxford ; Scott Co. ; Tippah 
Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Grenada ; Montrose ; Hattiesburg ; 
Meadville; Bay St. Louis (Allison). May-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Phlox reptans ]Michx. Creeping Purple Phlox. 



234 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Damp shaded woods. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Michi- 
gan City. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Phlox amoena Sims (P. Walteri Chapm.) Early Phlox. 

Dry open sandy soils. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Biloxi ; 
March-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Phlox divaricata L. Blue Phlox ; Sweet William. 

Rich open woods. Lafayette Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Oko- 
lona ; West Point ; Jackson. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

POLEMONIUM L. 

Polemonium reptans L. Jacob's Ladder. 

Rich shaded slopes with limestone soils. Lafayette Co. ; 
Pontotoc Ridge near New Albany ; slopes of Owl Creek near 
Ripley ; Booneville. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE. Water-Leaf Family 
HYDROPHYLLUM L. 

Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Nutt. 

Rich woods. Xoi'th Mississippi (Mohr). April. 

NE]\IOPHILA Nutt. 

Nemophila microcalyx (Nutt.) Fisch. & Mey. 

Damp borders of woods. Natchez. March. ~ 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

NAMA L. 

Nama affine (A. Gray) Kuntze. 

Borders of ponds. Hinds Co.; Amory; Mouticello. Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND KERNS 235 

Nama oyata (Nutt.) Britton. 

Borders of ponds. Eastern prairie region. Bay St. Louis 
(Allison) ; Lumberton ; Picayune. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BOR AGIN ACE AE. Borag-e Family. 

HELIOTROPIUM L. Heliotrope. 

Heliotropium curassavicum L. Seaside Heliotrope. 

Salt marslu^s. Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy). 

Heliotrophium Indicum L. 

A weed in waste and cultivated ground. Coast and Coast- 
al Islands (Tracy) ; Hinds Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Heliotropium anchusaefolium Poir. 

In waste places. Hancock Co. (Allison). 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

MYOSOTIS L. Forget-me-not. 

Myosoti? verna macrosperma Nutt. 

Dry open fields. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Starkville 
(Tracy) ; Tishomingo Co. (Allison). April. 

Allison Herb 

LITHOSPERMUM L. Gromwell. 

Lithospermum arvense L. 

Edges of fields. ^lontrose. June -July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Lithospermum canescens (^lichx.) Lehm. Puccoon. 

Dry pine woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. April- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Lithospermum tuberosum Rugel. Tuberous-Rooted Gromwell. 
Light gravelly and sandy soil. Oxford (Dr. Bailey). Apr. 

CYNOGLOSSUM Tourn. Hound's Tongue. 

C'ynoglossum Virginianmn L. (C. amplexicaule ]\lichx.) Wild 
Comfrev. 



236 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Dry open woods. Lafayette Co. (Hilg.) ; Eastport; New 
Albany ; Ripley ; Grenada ; Vicksburg. Spring. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

COCHRANEA Miers. 

Cochranea anchusaefolia (Poir.) Gurke. 
Waste places (Small). Spring-Fall. 

ONOSMODIUM Miehx. 

Onosmodium Carolinianmn (Lam.) A. DC. Carolina False 
Gromwell. 

Rich limey prairie soil at Jackson (rare); Starkville; 
Satartia on Jackson clay. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Onosmodium Virginianum (L.) DC. Virginia False Gromwell. 
Rich upland woods and dry sandy fields. Oxford; Hat- 
tiesburg; Lost Gap. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

VERBENACEAE. Verbena or Vervain Family 

VERBENA L. Vervain. 

Verbena aubletia Jacq. Aublet's Verbena. 
Dry sandy soil. Hattiesburg. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Verbena xutha Lehm. 

Waste places, especially near the coast. Oxford ; Jackson ; 
Gulfport. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Verbena urticaefolia L. AVhite Vervain. 

A common weed in waste places. Oxford; Hinds Co.; 
Warren Co.; Starkville; New Albany (Tracy). July. 

Verbena Carolina L. Carolina Vervain. 

Usually in dry pine lands. Lowndes Co. (Tracy) ; Jones 
Co. (Allison) ; Hattiesburg. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 237 

Verbena bracteosa Michx. (Verbena canescens Chap.) 
Dry open waste places. Oxford; Grenada. July. 

Verbena hastata L. (V. paniculata Lam.) Blue Vervain. 

Low damp open pastures. Benton Co. ; Pontotoc Co. Sum- 
mer. 

Verbena stricta Vent. 

Damp opon ground. Bluffs below Satartia; Eastport. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Verbena angustifolia Michx. Narrow-leaf Vervain. 
Calcareous clay soils. Starkville (Tracy). July. 

Verbena Canadensis (L.) Britton (Buchnera Canadensis L.) 
Dry prairie regions. Lawrence Co. (Hilg.). March-April. 

Verbena bonariensis L. 

Open waste lands. Jackson (T. P. Bailey) ; Woodville. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

LIPPIA L. Frog Fruit. 

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. (Verbena nodifiora L.) Spatulate- 
Leaved Frog-fruit. 

Damp sandy soil. Pontotoc; Scooba; Coastal Islands; 
Moss Point; Biloxi; Bay St. Louis (Allison); Jackson Co.; 
Warren Co. May-November. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lippia lanceolata Miehx. Lance-leaf Frog Fruit. 

Low wet soil. Taylor ; West Point ; Warren Co. ; Southern 
Hinds Co. ; Pascagoula. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CALLICARPA L. French Mulberry. 

Callicarpa Americana L. 

Dry upland woods. Coastal regions; Hancock Co. (Hilg. 
Rep.) ; Bay St. Louis ; Hinds Co. ; Grenada; Tippah Co. June. 

Allison Herb. 



238 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOrjICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

AVICEXXIA L. 

Avicennia nitida Jacq. Black Mangrove. 

Wet littoral, sandy .soil f Small). Door Point (Coastal 
Islands). 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PHTEMA L. Lopseed. 

Phyrma leptostachya L. 

Damp rich shaded soils. Eiplev: Grenada Co. ; Charleston; 
Warren Co.; Copiah Co. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

XEPETACEAE. Mint Family. 

:MES0SPHAERUM L. Swamp Basil. 

Mesosphaerum rugosum (L.) Pollard (Hyptis radiata Willd.) 
Margins of jjine Ijarrens ponds. South .Mississippi (Hilg.J ; 
Eankin Co. (Hilg.) ; Biloxi (Tracy); Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son) : Joiies Co. (Allison) : Tylertown. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

COLLIXSOXIA L. Horse Balm. 

Collinsonia scabriuscula Ait. Purple Horse Palm. 
Damp thic-kf'ts. Clinton (T. P. Bailey). Sept. 

Collinsonia Canadensis L. Canadian Horse Balm. 

Rich woodlands. Northern part of state (Mohr). July. 

Collinsonia anisata Sims. Citronella 

Dr>' shaded slopes. Southern part of state (Mohr). Sept. 

Collinsonia verticillata Baldw. 

liich .shaded woods T Small j. Spring and summer. 

MEXTHA L. Mint. 

Mentha spicata L. ^Mentha viridis L.) Spearmint. 

Low damp soil perhap^s throughout the state. West Point; 
July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 239 

LYrOPUS L. Water Hoarhound. 
Lycopus Europoeus 

On the beach. Cat Island. (Lloyd & Tracy). 

Lycopus pubens Britton. 

Pine swamps (SmaH;. South Mississippi. Summer and 
Fall. 

Lycopus rufcellus Moench. Reddish Bugle weed. 

Low swampy land. Southern pine region to the coast. Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). August. 

Allison Herb. 

Lycopus velutinus Rydb. 

Low grounds and swamps (Small). Summer and fall. 

CUNILA L. Dittany. 

Cunila origanoides (L.) Britton (Cunila mariana L.) 

Cherty, gravelly hillslopes near Eastport. Northern part 
of the state. July-August. 

kOELLLl Moench. 

Koellia flexuosa (Walt.) Meilillan (Pyeuanthemum linifoli- 
um Pursli.) Virginia Thyme. 

Low wet ground : prairies. Amory ; southern part of state 
(Hilg.^ : Carroll Co. (Hilg.) : Oxford: Jones Co.: Jackson Co. 
June. 

Geo]. Surv. Herb. 

Koellia Virginana L.'i Britt. (Pycnanthemum lanceolatum 
Pursh.i 

Dry soil and thickets. Oxford : Jackson. June. 

Koellia aristata (^Nlichx.) Kuntze. Aristate Thyme. 

Pine regions in southern part of state. Horn Lake. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Koellia albescens (Torr. <S: Gray* Kuntze (Pycnanthemum al- 
bescens Torr & Gray). Whitish Basil. 

In sandy soil, often in dry woods (SmalP. Chiefly in 
southern pine regions of the state. Bay St. Louis ( Allison "i ; 
Hinds Co. : Lafayette Co. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



240 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

CLINOPODIUM L. / 

Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze (Calamintha nepeta Savi.) 
European Basil Thyme. 

Dry uplands aud roadsides. Oxford. July-Sept, 

Clinopodimn Carolinianum (Walt.) Kuntze (Thymbra Caro- 
liniana Walt.) Carolina Thyme. 

Dry open woods (Mohr). August and September. 

Clinopodium coccineum (Nutt.) Kuntze (Calamintha Coccinea 
(Nutt.) Benth.) Scarlet Balm. 

Sandy pine ridges; Coastal Islands (Tracy); Cat Island; 
Gulfport. September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SALVIA L. Sage. 

Salvia cocinea Juss. Scarlet-flowered Salvia. 

Sandy soil; waste places; southern part of state. Bay St. 
Louis (Allison) June-Oct. 

Allison Herb. 

Salvia azurea Lam. Azure Salvia, 

Dry sandy soil. Marion Co. (Hilg.) ; Ocean Springs 
(Tracy); Jones Co. (Allison); Bay St, Louis (Allison). 
Spring-Fall, 

Allison Herb 

Salvia urticifolia L. Nettle-Leaf Salvia. 

Open I'ich woods or thickets. Northeast Mississippi (Hilg,) 
Spring and summer. 

Salvia lyrata L. Meadow Sage. 

Open grassland throughout the state. Oxford; Tishomin- 
go Co. (Allison) ; Jackson; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Spring 
and Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
MONARDA L. Horsemint. 

Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot. 

Fence rows and thickets; dry woods. Oxford; luka; 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 241 

Ripley; Lost Gap; Starkville (Tracy); Jones Co.; Jackson. 
June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Monarda punctata L. Dotted Horsemint. 

Dry sandy soil, borders of fields, pastures and waysides. 
Oxford; Shubuta; South Mississippi (Hilg.) ; Simpson Co.; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Coastal Islands. July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

BLEPUILIA Raf. 

Blephilia ciliata (L.) Raf. (Monarda ciliata L.) 

Dry woods and thickets, especially limey soils. North ALis- 
sissippi; Ripley; Oxford; Smith Co. June-August. 

NEPETA L. 

Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. 

In waste ground. Oxford ; Hinds Co. Summer-fall. 

GLECOMA L. 

Glecoma hederacea L. (Nepeta glecoma Benth.) 

Around buildings and waste lands. Oxford. Spring. 

SCUTELLARIA L. Skullcap. 

Scutellaria laterifolia L. ]\Iad-dog Skullcap. 

Wet thickets; along streams. Over the state. Oxford; 
Pulton ; Heidelberg ; Rosetta ; Hinds Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Scutellaria cordifolia Muhl. (Scutellaria versicolor Nutt.) 

Shady borders of woods; moist banks. Oxford; West 

Point; Lost Gap; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Spring-summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Scutellaria incana ]\Iuhl. (S. canescens Nutt.) Hoary Skullcap. 
Open copses and borders of woods. Oxford; Tishomingo 
City. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



V42 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Scutellaria pilosa Michx. / 

Dry soil ; open woods and thickets. Central pine uplands 
to the coast. Oxford ; Brookhaven. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Scutellaria integrifolia L. (S. hyssopifolia L.) 

Dry woods and thickets. luka; Oxford; Carroll Co. 

(Hilg.). Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Scutellaria parvula Michx. 

Dry open soil, sand or clay. Oxford; Tishomingo Co.; 

]\lortou. ]\Iay-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PRUNELLA L. 

Prunella vulgaris L. (Prunella vulgaris Tour.) Self -Heal. 
(Introduced) 

Damp pastures and open woods; perhaps throughout the 
state.' Tishomingo Co. (Allison); Michigan City; Oxford; 
Jackson. Spring-fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

PHYSOSTEGIA (L.) Benth. 
Physostegia Virginiana (L.) Benth. (Dracocephalum Virginia- 
num L.) False Dragon's Head. 

Borders of swamps and ditches. Oxford ; Tippah Co. ; 
West Point; Taylor. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

. STACHYS L. Woundwort. 
Stachys aspera :\lichx. Hispid Woundwort. 

Shaded wet borders of ditches and streams. Durant. 
Summer. 
Stachys tenuifolia Willd. 

In copses and open fields. Taylor; Warren Co.; Hinds Co. 
Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND KERNH ^^4 3 

LEONURUS L. Motherwort. 

Leonurus cardiaca Tj. 

Waste places; Tishomingo Co. (Allison). Summer, 

Allison Herb 

LAMIUM L. Dead Nettle. 

Lamium album (lutrodueed). AVhite Dead Nettle. 

Old gardens. Oxford (one locality). Early spring. 

Lamium amplexicaule L. Common Garden Dead Nettle. 

In waste and cultivated ground; over the state. Oxford 
Jackson. February-]\Iay. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TKICIIOSTE.MA L. Blue Curls. 

Trichostema dichotommn L. Common Blue Curls. 

Throughout the state in dry sandy soil. Lawrence Co. 
(Ililg.); Biloxi (Tracy); Clinton (T. P. Bailey); Jackson. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Trichostema lineare Nutt. (Trichostema brachiatum Lam.). 
Linear-leaved Blue Curls. 

Dry open soil. Central pine region to the coast. Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). July. 

Allison Herb 

TEUCRIUM L. Germander. 

Teucrium Canadense L. Wood Sage, 

Over the state; damp thickets and low banks. Rodney; 
Holmes Co.; Bay St. Louis (Allison). July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Teucrium Nashii Kearney, Nash's Germander. 

Littoral (Small) ; shaded thickets and hammocks. Biloxi; 
Coastal Islands (Tracy). Spring and summer. 

MACBRIDEA Ell. 
Macbridea pulchra Ell. 



244 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Pine barren swamps. McHenry. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SOLANACEAE. Nightshade Family. 
LYCIUM L. 

Lycium Carolinianum AValt. Carolina Box Thorn. 

Littoral, swampy beaches. Coastal Islands (Tracy) ; Door 
Point. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PHYSALODES Boehm. 

Physalodes physalodes (L.) Britton. (Nicandra physalodes 
Goert.) 
Apple of Peru. 

Waste places near dwellings. Hudsonville. July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PHYSALIS L. Ground Cherry. Jerusalem Cherry. 

Physalis angulata L. (P. angulata var. linkiana Gray.) 

Over the state, pastures, borders of fields and waste 
ground. Hinds Co. July. 

Physalis Virginiana intermedia Rydberg. Virginia Ground 

Cherry. 
Shaded thickets (Mohr). April-June. 

Physalis viscosa L. (Physalis tomentosa Walt.) Stellate 
Ground Cherry. 

Pine barrens region; sandy banks of streams. Oxford. 
June-October. 

Physalis angustifolia Nutt. Narrow-leaf Seaside Ground 
Cherry. 

Low sandy beaches along the coast. Coastal Island (Tra- 
cy) ; Horn Island; Gulfport. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SOLANUM L. Nightshade. 

Solanum nigrum L. Common Nightshade. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 245 

Throughout the state, in waste or cultivate ground. Ox- 
ford ; Hinds Co. ; Smith Co. ; Bay St. Louis. June-October. 

Geol. Surv, Herb. 

Solanum gracile Dunal. Slender Nightshade. 

In sandy soil of the coast region; coastal islands (Tracy) ; 
Summer and fall. 

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. (Solanum mamonsum Ell.) 
Spiny Nightshade. 

Dry sandy soil. Coastal region. Pascagoula. Spring. 

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Silverleaf Nightshade. 
Dry sandy soil. Bay St. Louis (Allison). June. 

Allison Herb. 

Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanum balbisii Dunal). 

Southern prairie region to the coast. Biloxi beach. Spring 
and summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Solanum Cai-olinense L. Horse Nettle. 

Over the state ; dry sandy open ground, fields and waste 
places. Oxford; Hinds Co. June-Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Solanum rostratum Dunal. 

Waste places and prairies (Small). Lafayette Co. Spring 
and summer. 

DATURA L. Thorn Apple. Jamestown or Jimson Weed. 

Datura tatula L. Purple Thorn Apple. 

l^ich waste places over the state. Very common. Summer. 
Datura stramonium L. Common Thorn Apple. Jamestown 
or Jimson Weed. 

Much less common than D. tatula in this state. Waste 
places and cultivated ground. Summer. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. Figrwort Family. 

VERBASCUM L. Mullein. 

Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mulein. 

Dry open fields and pastures; over the state. April-May. 



246 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Verbascum blattaria L. Moth ]\Iullein. 

Over the state ; in fields and waste places. July. 

LINARIA Jus. Toad Flax. 

Linaria Canadensis (L.) Dumort (Antirrhinum Canadense L.). 
Wild Toad Flax. 

Over the state, in cultivated and waste ground. Oxford; 
Jackson; Gulfport; Bay St. Louis; Hattiesburg; Newton. 
^larch-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Linaria Floridana Chapm. Florida Toad Flax. 

Littoral region; drifting sands near the eoast (Mohr). 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). April-May. 

Linaria linaria (L.) Karst. (Linaria vulgaris Mill.) Common 
Toad Flax. 

Field and waste places. Not very common. May-June. 

SCROPHULARIA L. Figwort. 

Scrophularia MarUandica L. INIaryland Figwort. 

Chiefly in northeastern part of the state. Michigan City; 
Carlisle. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHELONE (L.) Tour. 

Chelone glabra L. Turtlehead. 

Damp shaded banks, thickets and swampy places. Nortli- 
ern and eastern parts of the state. Smith Co. (Hilg. Rep.) ; 
Lafayette Co. September. 

PENTSTEMON. (L'Herit.) Soland. 

Pcntstemon hirsuta L. (P. pubscens Soland) Pubscent 
Beard-tongue. 

Dry sandy soil; borders of thickets and woods (Mohr). 
Oxford; Tishomingo Co. (Allison); Jackson (T. P. Bailey). 
May. 

Pentstemon digitalis Nutt. (P. laevigatus digitalis Gray). Fox- 
glove Beard-tongue. 

In fields and wet woods. Jackson (T. P. Bailey). May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 24 7 

Pentstemon pentstemon (L.) Britt. P. laevigatus multiflorus 
Cliapm.). Smooth Beard-Tongue. 

Damp woods and thickets. Plattiesburg ; Back Bay of 
Biloxi. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Pentstemon tubiflorus Nutt. 

On low ])rairi(.'s (Small). Oxford; West Point; Lost Gap; 
Jackson. Spring-summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PAULOWNIA Sieb. & Zucc. Paulownia. 

Paulcwnia tomentosa (Tmib.) Baill. 

AVaste places and thickets. Oxford; Hinds Co.; Copiah 
Co. ]\I arch- April. 

MIMULUS L. Monkey Flower. 

Mimulus alatus Sol and. 

Swamps, meadows and damp grassy banks. Oxford -. Du- 
rant ; Hinds Co. ; Copiah Co. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

GRATOLIA L. Hedge Hyssop. 

Gratiola Floridana Nutt. Flordia Hedge Hyssop. 

AVet places in the woods; muddy banks of streams. Amite 
Co. (Allison.) April-May. 

Allison Herb. 

Gratiola spaerocarpa Ell. Gratloia acumineata Vahl.) 
Round-Fruited Hedge Hyssop. 

Over the state ; low grounds, springs and branches. Ox- 
ford ; Hattiesburg. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gratiola pilosa Alichx. (Gratiola Peruviana Walt.) Pilose 
Hedge Hyssop. 

Most common in the low, sandy pine region of the coast 
plain. Bay St. Louis (Allison.) 

Allison Herb. 



248 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Gratiola hispida (Benth.) Pollard; (Sophronanthe hispida 
Benth.) Rough Hedge Hyssop. 

Dry Sands on the Gulf Coast (Mohr) ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy.) June- July. 

MONNIERA P. Br. 

Monniera acuminata (Walt.) Kuntze, (Gratiola acuminata 
Walt.) Blackening Hedge Hyssop. 

Southern part of the state (Hilg. Rep.) Low damp places, 
thickets and pastures. April-May. 

Monniera monniera (L.) Britt. (Herpestis monniera H. B. K.) 
Creeping ]\Ionniera. 

Coastal plain and Islands (Tracy) ; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son) ; jMoss Point. May-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Allison Herb. 

Monniera rotundifolia Michx. 

Wet muddy flats bordering ponds. Hinds Co. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SEPTILIA Raf. 

Septilia crenulata Small; (Monniera crenulata Small). 
In ditches and low wet places. Picayune. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

MICRANTHEMUM Michx. 

Michranthemum orbiculatum IMichx. 

Muddy banks and ponds. Northern part of the State. 
(Hilg. Rep.) Amite Co. (Allison) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison.) 
j\Iay-August. 

Allison Herb. 

ILYSANTHES Raf. 

Ilysanthes gratioloides (L.) Benth. (Ilysanthes riparia Raf.) 
Hedge Hyssop-like Ilysanthes. 

Muddy borders of streams and springs. Oxford; Leake 
Co. (Hilg. Rep.) May. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 249 

Ilysanthes refracta (Ell.) Benth. (Lindernia refracta Ell.) 
Wet pine lands (Small) Spring and summer. 

SCOPARIA L. 

Scoparia dulcis L. 

In sandy soil of the Coastal plain. July. 

VERONICA L. Neckweed. 

Veronica peregrina L. (V. Caroliniana Walt.) 

Open pastures over the state. Oxford; Tishomingo Co. 
(Allison) ; Carrollton. March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Allison Herb. 

Veronica arvensis L. Corn Speedwell. 

Cultivated ground. Coastal region. Oxford ; Tishomin- 
go Co. (Allison). Feb. -March. 

Allison Herb. 

Veronica agrestis L. 

In fields and waste places ; near the coast. 

LEPTANDRA Nutt. Culver's Root. 

Leptandra Virginica (L.) Nutt. (Veronica Virginica L.) 

^Meadows and moist thickets Northern and central parts 
of the state. Oxford; Horn Lake; Madison Co. (Allison.) 
Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Allison Herb. 

AFZELIA J. G. GMELIN. 

Afzelia cassinoides J, G, Gmelin. (Seymeria tenuifolia Pursh.) 
Thin-leaved Afzelia. 

Dry sandy pine forests (Mohr).- Fontanbleau (Tracy). 
September. 

MACRANTHERA Torr. 

Macranthera fuchsioides (Nutt.) Torr. (Conradia fuchsio- 
ides Nutt.) Fuchsia-like Macranthera. 



250 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Damp pine lands, Sortlifin counties, to the coast. Mc- 

Tlenry: Nugent. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DASYTOMA Raf. False Foxglove.. 

Dasytoma pedicularia (L.) Benth. 

Rich shaded slopes. Mich. City; Oxford. Summer-fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dasytoma pectinata (Nutt) Benth. (Gerardia pedicularia 
Pectinata Nutt.) Pectinate False Foxglove. 

Dry sandy soil. Southern part of State (Hilg. Rep.) 
Tishomingo Co. ; Lyman ; Rankin Co. ; Lost Gap. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dasytoma flava (L.) Wood. Geradia flava L.) Downy False 
Fox-glove. 

In woods and thickets. Booneville, West Point. Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dasytoma Virginica (L.) Britton. (Gerardia quercifolia 
Pursh.) Virginia False Foxglove.' 

Dry woods and thickets; Northeastern part of State 
(Small.) Starkville, (Tracy); Winona; Oxford. Summer 
and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dasytoma dispersa Small. 

Dry pine woods and on hillsides. (Small). Summer and 
fall. 

Daysytoma laevigata (Raf.) Chapm. (Gerardia laevigata Raf.) 
Smooth False Foxglove. 

Central pine belt. Bay St. Louis. (Allison. Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Gerardia Auriculata r^Iichx. (Otophylla IMichauxii. Benth.) 
Auriculate False Foxglove. 

Limestone prairies, frequent. Scooba 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. IT] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 251 

Gerardia linifolia Xutt. Flax-leaf Gerardia. 

Low pine bowers. Kankin Co. ; Bay St. Louis. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
Allison Herb. 

Gerardia Purpurea (Tj.) Purple Gerardia. 

Low and swampy open ground in northern and central 
parts of the state. Marion Co. (Hilg, Rep.) ; Jackson (T. P. 
B.) ; Oxford. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gerardia flava L. 

Northern and eastern parts of the state. Lauderdale Co. 
(Ililg.) Aug.-Sept. 

Gerardia maritima Raf.. G. purpurea Var. erassifolia Pursh.) 
Seaside Gerardia. 

Littoral; Salt Marshes. Coastal Island (Tracy.); Cat 
Island; Back Ba}' of Biloxi. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gerardia Plukenetti Ell. (G. setacea Chapm. (JPlukenet's Ger- 
ardia. 

Dry open pine barrens of lower pine region (Mohr.) Sept.- 
Oet. 

Gerardia fasciculata Ell. (G. purpurea Var. fasieulata Chapm.) 
Fascicled Gerardia. 

Low damp pine barrens near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy). 
Sept.-Oct. 

Gerardia setacea Walt. 

Dry open uplands. Claiborne Co. October. 

Gerardia divaricata Chapm. 

Dry open upland woods. Claibore Co. October. 

Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl. (xVnonj^nos erecta Walt. ) Thin- 
leaved Gerardia. 
Dry open woods. Oxford; Heidelberg; Jackson; Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



252 MISSISSIPPI STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Gerardia tenuifolia filif o: :.: : * uhl. 
Light open soil. L- r.rii. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gerardia Skinneriana Wood, (Gerardia ponifolia Chapm.) 
Small-leaved Gerardia. 
Damp sandy pine woods of the coastal region. Gulfport 
(Tracy); Bay St. Louis (Allison); Lyman; McHenry. Oct. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Gerardia aphylla Nutt. Leafless Gerardia. 

Pine barrens near the coast. Lyman ; Lumberton. Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BUCHNERA L. 

Buchnera Americana L. Blue Hearts. 

Dry open woods. Madison Co. (Hilg. Rep.) May- July. 

Buchnera elongata Sw. Southern Blue Hearts. 

Most frequent in dry woods of the Southern Counties. 
Jackson (T. P. Bailey) ; Ripley; Jones Co. (Allison) ; Wiggins; 
Landon; Bay St. Louis (Allison). May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

CASTILLEJA Mutis 

Castilleja Coccinea (L.) Spreng. (Bartsia Coccinea L.) Paint- 
ed Cup. 
Reported at Oxford by Hilgard; North Miss. (Mohr) per- 
haps after Hilgard. July. 

PEDICULARIS L. 

Pedicularis Canadensis L. Wood Betony. 

In damp open woods and moist banks, throughout the 
state. Oxford ; Hinds Co. ; Itawamba Co. ; Tishomingo Co. (Al- 
lison). April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

PINGUICULACEAE. Butterwort Family. 
PINGUICULA L. Butterwort. 
Pingnicula lutea Walt. Yellow Butterwort. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 253 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Gulfport; Landon; Lyman; Bay St. Louis (Allison). ]\Iarch- 
April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb 

Pingiiicula planifolia Chapm. (P. australis Chapm.) 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast. Lyman ; Picayune ; 
Hurley. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Pinguicula pumila Michx. (P. australis Nutt.) Pigmy But- 
terwort. 

AVith other species on low pine barrens near coast (Hilg. 
Rep.) Spring. 

UTRICULARIA Bladderwort 

Utricularia biflora Lam. (U. fibrosa Chapm.) 

Ditches and shallow stagnant ponds, mostly near the coast. 
(Hilg. Rep.) July-Sept. 

Utricularia fibrosa Walt. (U. striata Leconte.) Fibrous Blad- 
derwort. 
Open, shallow sphagnous ponds near the coast (Mohr.) 

Aug. 

Utricularia juncea Yahl. (U. personata Leconte) . Rush-like 
Bladderwort. 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast. Greene Co. ; Hur- 
ley ; Picayune. Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Utricularia subulata L. (U. setacea Michx.) Setaceous Blad- 
derwort. 

Low wet pine barrens near the coast. Biloxi and Coastal 
Islands (Tracy.) April. 

OROBANCHACEAE. Broom-rape Family. 
LEPTAMNIUM Raf. 

Leptamnium Virginianum (L.) Raf. (Epiphegus Americanus 
Nutt) Beech-Drops. 



254 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Parasitic on roots of beech trees throughout the state. 
Warren Co.; Hinds Co.; Amite Co. (Allison.) Oct. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

BIGNONIACEAE. Bignonia Family. 
BIGNONIA L. 

Bignonia crucigera L. (B. capreolata L.) Cross-vine. 

Throughout the state climbing over large forest trees. Ben- 
ton Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Hancock Co. 
(Allison.) April. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

TECOMA Juss. 

Tecoma radicans (L.) D. C. (Bignonia radicans L.) Trumpet- 
Creeper. Sometimes called by farmers Poor Land Vine. 
Throughout the state climbing over trees and bushes, most- 
ly on low grounds. Often becomes troublesome in cultivated 
ground. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Okalona ; Bay St. Louis 
(Allison.) June- July. 

CATALPA, Scop. 

Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst. (C. bignonioides Walt.) Catalpa 
tree. 

Throughout the state mostly on low ground. Common 
around dwellings where it has been used as a shade tree. April- 
May. 

ACANTHACEAE. Acanthus Family. 
RUELLIA L. 

Ruellia noctiflora (Nutt.) Gray. (Dipteracanthus noetifl- 
orus Nutt.) 
Night-blooming Ruellia. Savannas near the coast. (Mohr. 
Small.) Sept.-Oct. 

B.uellia ciliosa Pursh. Ciliated Ruellia. 

Throughout the state in dry open upland woods. Ripley; 
Poiit.otrc; West Point; Oxford; Starkville (Tricy^ ; Hinds Co.; 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 255 

Warren Co.; Lost Gap; Amite Co.; (Allison) ; Biloxi (Tracy';. 
Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Ruellia ciliosa humilis (Nutt.) Britton (R. humilis Nutt.) Low 
ciliated Kuellia. 
Dry open upland woods. INIostly in the Southern counties. 
Ba 3' St. Louis (iVllison.) Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Ruellia ciliosa parviflora (Nutt.) Britt. Dipteracanthus cil- 
iosus var. parviflorus Nees.) Small-flowered ciliated Ruel- 
lia. 

Open upland dry woods. (Mohr.) July. 

Ruellia strepens L. (Diptheracanthus strepens Nees.) 

Open woods and copses. Tishomingo Co. ; Simpson Co. ; 
(Ililg.) Rodney (Dr. Perviance) ; Tunica. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

DIANTHERA L. Water WiUow. 
Dianthera lanceolata (Chapm.) Small (D. ovata lanceolata 
Chapm.) 

Low wet stream banks and ditches. Taylor; AVarren- 
towu ; Hattiesburg. Summer to fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Dianthera ovata Walt. 

Wet muddy brook sides and banks. Leake Co. (Hilg. M. 
S.) ; Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey.) Late summer. 

PLANTAGINACEAE. Plantain Family. 
PLANTAGO L. Plantain. 

Plantago major L. Greater Plantain. 

Low moist waste places throughout the state. Oxford; 
May. 

Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain, or Rib Grass. 

Open waste lands around dwellings and pastures. Through- 
out the state. Oxford ; Jackson ; Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



256 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Plantagfo aristata Michx. (P. patagonica aristata Gray.) Awned 
Plantain. 

Dry upland sandy soil. Throughout the State. Oxford ; 
Jackson. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Plantag-o Virginica L. Common Plantain. 

Dry upland fields and pastures throughout the State. Ox- 
ford ; Carrolton ; Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son). Spring and Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Plantago heterophylla Nutt. 

Low damp fields and pastures. Oxford ; Scott Co. Spring. 

Plantago pusilla Nutt. Marsh Plantain. 

Found abundantly in edges of marshes growing in several 
inches of water. Oxford ; Scott Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; (Alli- 
son) Pascagoula. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

RUBIACEAE. Madder Family. 

OLDENLANDIA L. 

Oldenlandia boscii (DC.) Chapm. (Hedyotis boscii DC.) 

Damp soil edges of ponds and ditches. Bay St. Louis. 

July. 

Oldenlandia uniflora L. (0. glomerata Michx.) 

Damp sandy soil. Coastal Islands (Tracy.) July. 
Oldenlandia littoralis Mohr. 

Muddy banks near tide level. (Mohr.) Tishomingo Co. 
(Allison). Sept. 

HOUSTONIA L. 

Houstonia coerulea L. (Hedyotis coerulea Hook.) Bluet. 
Damp rich banks, edges of copses. Only in northern coun- 
ties; Tisliojningo Co.; Lowndes Co. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Houstonia minor (Michx.) Britt. (H. patens Ell.) South- 
ern Bluet. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 257 

Damp open pastures and waste lands. Throughout the 
state. Oxford; Jackson; Tishomingo Co. (Allison); Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). March. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Houstonia rotundifolia ^lichx. (Oldenlandia purpurea Gray.) 
Open woods and copses. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) Mont- 
rose ; Hattiesburg; Fernwood; Wayne Co. April-May. 

Ge.ol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Houstonia lanceolata (Poir.) Britt. 

Open copses and woodlands. Oxford. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Houstonia angustifolia Michx. (Oldenlandia angustifolia Gray.) 
Dry open upland woods. Oxford. ]\Iay-June. 

CEPHALANTHUS. L. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Buttonbush. Button Willow. 
Low marshy banks and pastures. Throughout the state. 
Oxford ; Grenada ; Hinds Co. ; Carroll Co. July- Aug. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

MITCHELLA L. 

Mitchella repens L. Partridge Berry. 

Dry open shaded woods throughout the state. Lafayette 
Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Carroll Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Forrest Co. ; Han- 
cock Co. (Allison). April-June. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

SPERMACOCE L. 

Spermacoce glabra ^Michx. Smooth Buttonweed. 

Low wet open fields and pastures. Eastport ; Oxford ; 
Rodney (Dr. Perviance) ; Warren Co.; Hinds Co. Summer . 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Spermacoce parviflora (Meyer) Gray (Borveria parviflora 
Meyer.) 

Low bottom lands in the coastal pine regions. Biloxi 
(Tracy). June. -Aug. 



258 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY rBull. 

RICHARDIA L. 

Richardia scabra L. (Richardsonia scabra St. Hilg. ) Mexican 
Clover 

Dry sandy soil. On Tennessee River bottoms in Tisho- 
mingo County. Summer and fall. 

DIODIA L. 

Diodia Virginiana L. (D. tetragona Walt.) White Button 
Flower. 

Low damp fields and pastures. Throughout the state. 
Oxford ; Hinds Co. June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Diodia teres Walt. (Spermacoce diodina Miehx.) Purple 
Button Flower. 

Dry sandy or sterile soil throughout the State. Laiayette, 
Benton, Carroll, and Hinds Counties. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

GALIUM L. Bedstrav^, Cleavers. 

Galium Aparine L. Climbing Bedstraw. 

Damp thickets and banks, climbing over objects perhaps 
throughout the state. Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds Co. April-May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Galium pilosum Ait. Hairy Bedstraw. 

Dry open woods. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; Oxford; Rip- 
ley ; West Point ; Lost Gap. Summer. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Galium pilosum puncticulosum (Michx.) Torr and Gray (G. 
puueticulosum jMielix.) 

Dry sandy soil in the southern counties. Hinds Co. ; Bay 
St Louis (Allison.) Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Galium circaezans Michx. Wild Licorice. 

Damp shaded soils. Ripley; Pontotoc; Oxford. May- 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 259 

Galium trifidum L. Small Bedstraw. 

Wet, marshy soil. Tishomingo Co. ; Hinds Co. Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Galium trifiorum .Miehx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw. 

Kich shady upland woods. New Albany; Oxford; Gre- 
nada; Winona; Hinds Co.; Wilkinson Co. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Galium tinctorium Tj. 

Low sliaded swamps. Oxford. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Galium hispidulum Miehx. (Rubia peregrina Walt.) Scarlet- 
fruited Bedstraw. 

Dry shaded upland soil. Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Biloxi 
and coastal islands (Tracy.) May- June. 

Allison Herb. 

VIBUENACEAE. Honejrsuckle Family. 
SAMBUCUSL. Elder. 

Sambucus Canadensis L. American Elder. 

Low damp stream banks and thickets. Throughout the 
state. Oxford; Hinds Co. May-June. 

VIBURUM L. 

Viburnum molle ^Miehx. (V. dentatum scabrellum T. & G.) 
Hairy Arrowwood. 

Rich moist stream banks. Chunky. Summer. 

Viburum prunifolium L. Black Haw. 

Upland open woods. Clarke Co. Spring. 

Viburnum rufotomentosum Small. (V. prunifolium ferrugin- 
eum Small.) Southern Black Haw. 

Open upland woods and thickets. Hinds Co. Tishomingo 
Co.; Meridian; Okolona ; Satartia, on bluffs; Shubuta. April- 
May. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 



260 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Viburnum cassinoides L. (V. nudum cassinoides Torr & Gray.) 
White Rod. 

Thickets along stream banks. South Mississippi. (Hilg. 
Rep.) May- June. 

Viburnum nudum L. (V. nudum claytonii Torr & Gray.) Pos- 
sum Haw. 

Low swampy thickets. Biloxi (Tracy.) Jackson (Dr. T, 
P. Bailey.) Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Lost Gap. Spring. 

Allison Herb. 

Viburnum nitidum Ait. (V. nudum angustifolium Torr & 
Gray. ) 

Low wet banks of pine barrens, streams (Mohr.) Amite 
Co. (Allison.) May. 

Allison Herb. 

TRIOSTEUM L. Fever-Root. 

Triosteujn angnstifolium L. (T. minus Michx.) Narrow-leaf 
Fever-Root. 

Low rich shaded thickets. New Albany; Hatchie Hills 
west of Booneville ; Oxford. May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

S Y:\IPH0RICARPUS. Juss. 

Symphoricarpus symphorica^rpus L. ]\Ic]\Iilla_. (Lonicera sym- 
phoricarpus L.) Coral Berry. 

Limy wooded hillslopes. Tishomingo Co. (Allison.) 

Allison Herb. 

LONICERA L. Honeysuckle. 

Lonicera sempervirens L. (Caprifolium sempervirens Michx.) 
Trumpet Honeysuckle. Coral Honeysuckle. 

Rich moist banks of streams. Throughout the State. Tish- 
omingo Co. (Allison); Lafayette Co.; Hinds Co.; Carroll Co. 
April-^Iay. 

Geol. Survey Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lonicera Japonica Thunb. Japanese Honeysuckle. 

Run wild throughout the state, climbing in thick profusion 
over trees and banks. April-May. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 261 

VALERIANACEAE. Valerian FamUy. 

VALERIANELLA Pollic 

Valerinella chenopodifolia (Pnrsh.) DC. (Fedia chenopodifolia 
I'urshj. Goose-foot Corn Salad. 

Low damp limey clay. Jackson. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

Valerianella radiata (L.) Durr. (V. locusta radiata L.) Lamb 
Salad. 

Low damp soil borders of fields and pastures. Lafayette 
Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Lowndes Co. ; Hinds Co. Montrose. April- 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

CUCURBITACEAE. Gourd Family 

LAGENARL\ Seriuge. 

Lagenaria vulgaris (L.) Seringe (Cucurbita lagenaria L.) Com- 
mon Gourd. 

Naturalized in waste lands around dwellings. Summer. 

MELOTHRIA L. 

Melothria pendula L. Grape Melon. 

Common on low moist shaded ground, edges of thickets and 
stream banks. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Copiah Co. ; Forrest 
Co. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SICYOS L. 

Cicyos angulatus L. Bur Cucumber. 

Thickets and low ground bordering streams. Oxford; 
Vieksburg. September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CAMPANULACEAE. Bluebell Family. 
CAMPANULA L. 

Campanula Americana L. (C. acuminata Michx.) Tall Blue- 
bell. 



262 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Rich shaded soil edges of woods and copses. Houston. 

July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 
LEGOUZIA Durand. Venus Looking Glass 

Legouzia biflora (R. & P.) Britt (Specularia biflora Gray.) 
Two-flowered Venus looking glass. 

Light soil in open fields and pastures Tishomingo Co. (Alli- 
son) ; Lafayette Co. Spring 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Legouzia perfoliata (L.) Britt. (Specularia perfoliata A. DC.) 
Perfoliate Venus Looking Glass. 

Open soil of cultivated fields and waste places around 
dwellings. Tishomingo Co. ; Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Oxford ; 
Starkville (Tracy) ; Hinds Co. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

LOBELIA L. Lobelia. 

Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal Flower. 

Wet shady places bordering streams and swamps through- 
out the State. Lafayette Co.; Holmes Co.; Warren Co; Ran- 
kin Co. ; Amite Co. ; Scooba. Aug.-Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lobelia brevifolia Nutt. Short Leaf Lobelia. 

Low wet pine barrens in the Southern Counties. Lumber- 
ton; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Sept.-Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lobelia puberula Michx. Downy Lobelia. 

Damp sandy soil along borders of thickets. Oxford ; Hinds 
Co.; Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Aug.- 
Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lobelia amoena Michx. Southern Lobelia. 

Low shaded swamps. Bay St. Louis (Allison). July-Sept. 

Allison Herb. 

Lobelia amoena glaudulifera Gray. Pretty Lobelia. 

Low moist open sandy soil. South Mississippi (Hlg. Rep.) ; 
Oxford. Sept. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 263 

Lobelia glandulosa Walt. Glandular Lobelia. 

lu swamps and low shaded creek banks. Hinds Co. ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison.) Aug.-Sept. 

Geol. Surv, Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lobelia Floridana Chapm. Florida Lobelia. 

Wet pine barrens (Small.) Spring and summer. 
Lobelia leptostachys DC. Slender-Spiked Lobelia. 

Dry open woods and copses. Oxford; Tupelo. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Lobelia spicata Lam. (L. Claytoniana Michx.) Spiked Lobelia. 
Dry sandy meadow^s. Jackson; Jones Co. (Allison) ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). June-Aug. 

Allison Herb. 

Lobelia inflata L. Indian Tobacco. 

Dry fields and thickets. Lafayette ; Hinds ; Amite (Alli- 
son) Co. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lobelia canbyi A. Gray. Canby 's Lobelia. 

Swamps and wet meadows. Picayune. July-Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

OICHORIACEAE Chicory Family. 

Cichorium intybus L. Common Chicory. 

0-j:easional in waste places. Tupelo. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ADOPOGON Xec. Dandelion. 

Adopogon Carolinianum (Walt.) Britt. (Krigia Virginica 
AVilld.) 

Dry open sandy soil throughout the state. Tishomingo 
Co. (Allison) ; Oxford; Newton; Bay St. Louis (Allison). April 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Adopogon Virginicmn (L.) Kuntze (Krigia dandelion Nutt.) 
Dry sandy soil of open woods and pastures. Tishomingo 
Co. (Allison); Oxford; Montrose. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



264 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

SERINEA Raf. 

Serinea oppositifolia (Raf.) Kuntze (Apogon hnmilis Ell.) Lit- 
tle Humility. 

Dry sandy soils in open fields and wastelands. Through- 
out the state. Oxford ; Jackson ; Montrose. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HIERACIUM L. Hawkweed. 

Hieracium Gronovii L. Common Hawkweed. 

Light soil in dry open woods throughout the state. Tisho- 
mingo Co.; Carrollton; Oxford; ]\Iorton; Clinton (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey) ; Amite and Hancock Counties (Allison). April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Hieracium Marianum AYilld. ^Maryland Hawkweed. 
Dry open woods and thickets. Jackson. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Hieracium scabrmn ]\Iichx. Rough Hawkweed 

Dry open woods and clearings. Hinds Co. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TARAXACUM Haller. 

Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) Karst. (T. officinale Weber.) 
Common Dandelion. 

Open pastures and wastelands everywhere. March-May. 

SITILIAS Raf. 

Sitilias Caroliniana (Walt.) Raf. (Pyrrhopappus Carolinianus 
DC.) 

Open fields and pastures throughout the state. April-June. 

LACTUCA L. 

Lactuca Canadensis L. (L. elongata Muhl.) Wild Lettuce. 

Damp rich soil, borders of fields and copses. Perhaps 
throughout the state. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. August. 

Lactuca graminifolia ]\Iichx. (L. elongata gra'minifolia Chapm.) 
Narrow-Leaf Wild Lettuce. 



No. 17 J FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 265 

Borders of fields and pastures. Bay St. Louis (AUi.son.) 

Allison Herb. 

Lactuca Floridana (L.) Gaert. (Mulgedium Floridanum DC.) 
Blue-ilowered Wild Lettuce. 

Rich moist soil, borders of ditches and thickets throughout 
the state. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Rankin Co. ; Amite Co. 
(Allison). ]\Iay-June. 

Allison Herb. 

Lactuca villosa Jaeq. (.Mulgedium acuminatum DC.) Hairy- 
veined Blue Lettuce. 

Damp rich soil of shaded copses and thickets. Aug. 

Lactuca scariola L. Prickley Lettuce. 

Diy open banks, especially along railroad tracks. Grena- 
da ; Jackson Aug.-Sept. 

NABALUS CASS. 

Nabalus serpentaria (Pursh) Hook (Prenanthes serpentaria 
Pursh). Gall of Earth. 

Light dry soil of open woods. (Wailes). Summer. 

Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook. (Prenanthes altissima L.) 
TainAhite Lettuce. 

Rich woods and thickets. Smith and Jasper Counties 
(Hilg. Ms.) ; Lafayette Co.; Tippah Co. August. 

Geol. Sury. Herb 

Nabalus virgatus (Miehx.) DC. (Prenanthes virgata jNIichx.) 
Slender Snake Root. 

Damp sandy soil. Lost Gap. Sept. -Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SONCHUS L. Sow Thistle. 

Sonchus asper (L.) All. (S. oleraceus asper L.) Prickly Sow 
Thistle. 

Cultivated and waste ground throughout the State. Jasper 
Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Lafayette Co. Summer. 

Ccnchus oleraceus L. Common Sow Thistle. 



266 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Occurs with the last throughout the State, Hattiesburg. 
Spring 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

AMBROSIACEAE. Ragweed Family. 

AMBROSIA L. Ragweed. 

Ambrosia bidentata Michx. Lance-leaved Ragweed. 

Dry open pasture and edges of copses. Oxford. Sum- 
mer. 

Ambrosia trifida L. Tall Ragweed. 

Rich moist soil, borders of lowland fields throughout the 
state. Lafayette Co. ; Chickasaw Co. July-Sept. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L. Hogweed. Ragweed. 

Edges of dry upland cultivated fields throughout the 
state. Oxford ;May St. Louis (Allison). July-Sept. 

Allison Herb. 

IVAL. 

Iva imbricata Walt. Seaside Marsh Elder. 

Damp low beaches along the Gulf Coast. Coastal Islands 
(Tracy.) Summer and Pall. 

Iva frutescens L. Shrubby Marsh Elder. 

Low muddy beaches and brackish marshes along the coast. 
Plorn Island. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Iva caudata Small. 

Low wet ground and swamps. (Small.) Fall. 

XANTHIUM L. 

Xanthium strumarium L. Cocklebur 

Cultivated and low open ground. Summer. 

Xanthium canadense Mill (echinatum Murr.) Common Cockle- 
bur. 

Throughout the state in cultivated ground, especially low 
rich fields. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 2t)7 

CARDUACEAE. Thistle Family. 

VERNONIA Schreb. Iron- weed. 

Vernonia maxima Small. Great Iron Weed. 

Dry copses and borders of woods. (Mohr.) Summer. 

Vernonia fasciculata ]\Iichx. Fascicled Vernonia. 

Shady thickets and woods. Starkville (Tracy.) Aug. 

Vernonia graminifolia (Walt.) (V. angustifolia Michx.) Nar- 
row-leaf Vernonia. 

Upland pine forests toward the coast. (Small.) Hurley. 
Aug. 

Vernonia Texana (A. Gray) Small. Texas Vernonia. 
Sandy soil. ]\Ieadville. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb 

STOKESIA L'Her. 

Stokesia laevis (Hill) Green (S. cyanea L'Her.) Azure-flower- 
ed Stokesia. 

Low damp pine barrens near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison); Pass Christian; Landon; Picayune; 
McHenry ; Lumberton. May-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ELEPHANTOPUS L. Elephant's Foot. 

Elephantopus Carolinianus Willd. (E. Scaber Walt.) Carolina 
Elephant's Foot. 

Open dry woods. Oxford; Starkville; (Tracy); Holmes 
Co.; Hinds and Warren Counties; Hancock Co. (Allison). July- 

Aug. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Elephantopus tomentosus L. Hoary Elephant's Foot. 

Dry light soil in open woods. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Bay St. 
Louis (Allison); Oxford; Amory; Hinds Co.; Jones Co. (Alli- 
son). Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Elephantopus nudatus Gray. Naked-Stemmed Elephant's Foot. 



268 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Low rich shaded soil.^ Biloxi (Tracy) ; Copiah Co. Oct. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

AGERATUM L. 

Ageratum conyzoides L. (A. Mexicana Sims). Mexican Ager- 
atum. 

Open waste grounds and fields. Oxford; Winona; Car- 
roll Co. ; Warren Co. ; Adams Co. ; Star. July- Aug. 

EUPATORIUM L. Thoroughwort. 

Eupatorium capillifolmm (Lam.) Small. (E. foeniculaceum 

Willd.) 

Low moist ground in fields and pastures. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Utica (Dr' T. P. Bailey). Becoming troublesome weed in 
pastures of the Southern Counties. Fall. 

Eupatorium leptophyllum DC. 

Old sandy fields and dry open woods (Mohr.) Fall. 

Eupatorium purpureum L. (E. ternifolium Ell.) Purple Bone- 
set. 

Rich damp soil edges of woods and thickets. Ripley ; Ox- 
ford; Hinds Co.; Bay St, Louis (Allison). Summer, 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Eupatorium trifoliatum L. Joe Pye Weed. 

Low rich moist soil, borders of fields (Small). Summer 
and fall. 

Eupatorium leucolepis. Torr and Gray. 

Low pine lands McHenry. Summer and fall. 

Eupatorium album L. (E. glandulosum Michx.) White Flow- 
ered Boneset. 
Dry sandy soil in open woods throughout the state. Ox- 
ford ; Jackson; Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.) Summer and fall. 

Eupatorium Mohrii Greene. 

Damp open pine lands toward the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Woodland (Allison.) 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 269 

Eupatorium serotinum JMiehx. 

Rich soil borders of Ioav woods and thickets. Lafayette 
Co. ; Winona ; Jackson. October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. (E. hyssopifolium laeiniatum 
Gray. ) 

Edges of fields and pastures. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. 
August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eupatorium semiserratum DC. (E. parviflorum Ell.) 

Low lands, edges of fields and pastures. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Rankin Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Covington Co. Sept. 

Eupatorium altissimum L. 

Dry sandy soil. Bay St. Louis (Allison). Fall. 

Eupatorium tortifolium Cliapm. Twisted-leaf Boneset. 

Dry ridges in pine lands. Biloxi (Tracy). Summer. 

Eupatorium rotundifolium L. False Hoar-hound. 

Dry open low grounds throughout the state. Biloxi 
(Tracy); Tishomingo Co.; AVinona ; Lost Gap; Silvarena; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison.) Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Eupatorium pubescens Aluhl. (E. rotundifolium pubescens B. 

S. P.) Pubescent False Hoar-hound. 
Damp open places (Mohr.) August. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common Boneset. 

Low damp thickets and edges of marshes throughout the 
state. Oxford; Jackson; Bay St. Louis (Allison.) Late sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Eupatorium ageratoides L. 

Low shaded ravines. Amite Co. (Allison) ; Waynesboro. 
Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Eupatorium aromaticum L. (E. ceanothifolium Muhl) Wild 
Hoar-hound. 



270 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull 

Dry openings in the pine forests. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). September and October. 

Allison Herb. 

Eupatorium incamatum Walt. Bushy Eupatorium. 

Damp edges of woods and thickets. Clinton (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey.) June. 

Eupatorium coelestinum L. (Conoclinum coelestinum DC.) 
3,Iist Flower. 

Along ditches and damp thickets. Starkville (Tracy) ; 
Eiloxi (Tracy) ; Jackson; Jones Co.; Amite Co. (Allison.) 

Allison Herb 

OSMIA Sch. Bip. 

Osmia ivaefolia (L.) Small, (Eupatorium ivaefolium L) 
Uld fields and pastures. Amite Co. (Allison.) Pall. 

Allison Herb 

WILLUGHBAEYA Neck. 

Wiliughbaeya scandens (L.) Kuntze, (Eupatorium scandens 
L.) Climl)ing Boneset. 

Climbing over bushes in low, damp lands throughout the 
state. Tupelo ; Holmes Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Jones Co. ; Coast and 
Coastal Islands (Tracy.) August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

KUHNIA L. 

Kuhnia kuhnia (Gaert.) Mohr, (K. eupatoroides gracilis Torr. 
& Gray). Southern False Boneset. 

Dry jiine barrens (IMohr.) Sept. -October. 

LACINARIA Hill. 

Lacinaria elegans (Walt.) Kuntze, (Liatris elegans Willd.) 
Handsome Blazing Star. 

Dry open pine barrens. Lumberton ; Picayune. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Lacinaria squarrosa (L.) Hill, (Liatris squarrosa Willd.) Scaly 
Blazing Star. Colic Root. 

Dry light soil in open woods or fields. Oxford; Madison 



No. 171 FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 2 71 

(Plilg'. Ms.); Brookhaven; Hattiesburg; Wiggins; Waveland 
(Allison.) August-September 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lacinaria scariosa (L.) Hill, (Liatris seariosa Willd.) Com- 
mon Blazing- Star. 

Dry open Avoods and grasslands. Lawrence Co. (Hilg. 
Ms.): Jackson; Heidell)erg; Bay St. Louis (Allison). August 
September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lacinaria vittata Greene. 

Woods and meadows of south Mississippi (Small). Fall. 

Lacinaria spicata (L.) Kuntze (Liatris spicata Willd.) Spiked 
Button Snakeroot. 

LoAv pine barrens of southern counties. Jackson ; Collins ; 
Lumberton : Taylorsville ; Bay St. Louis (Allison.) September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Lacinaria pilosa (Ait.) Heller (Liatris graminifolia dubia 
Gray.) Hairy Blazing Star. 

Damp open sandy soil of the pine barrens. Biloxi (Tracy.) 
Septemlier. 

Lacinaria elegantula Greene. 

Open pine barrens (Small). Summer. 

Lacinaria elongata Green. 

Low open pine lands (Small). Summer and fall. 

Lacinaria gracilis Pursh. (Liatris paueiflosculosa Xutt.) 
blender Blazing Star. 
Dry open pine barrens (Hilg Ms.). September-October. 

TRILISA. Cass. 

Trilisa odoratissima (Walt.) Cass. (Liatris odoratissima 
Miclix.) Vanilla Plant. Sweet-scented Deertongue. 

Low wet pine barrens. Lincoln Co. ; Lumberton ; New Au- 
gusta ; Taylorsville; Picayune; Coastal Islands (Tracy). Au- 
gust. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



272 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

CARPHEPHORUS. Cass. 

Carphephorus pseudo-liatris Cass. 

Low damp pine barrens. McHenry ; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son). September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

GRINDELIA Willd. Gum Plant. 

Grindelia lanceolata Nutt. 

South Mississippi (Mohr). August. 

HETEROTHECA Cass. 

Heterctheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby, (H. Lam- 
arekii Cass.) Seaside Heterotlieca. 

Loose drifting sands along the coast. Gulf Coast and 
Islands (Tracy) ; Cat Island; once noted in Adams Co., near 
the River. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHRYSOPSIS Nutt. Golden Aster. 

Chriscp-;is graminifolia (Michx.) Silver Leaf Golden Aster. 
Light sandy soil in old fields and copses. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Claiborne Co. ; Tishomingo Co. ; Lost Gap ; Bay St. Louis 
(Allison). August-September. 

Allison Herb 

Chrysopsis trichophylla Nutt. Hoary-leaf Golden Aster. 
0})en damp pine swamps. Biloxi (Tracy). Ociober. 

Chjrysopsis scabrella Torr & Gray. Beach Golden Aster 

Dry sands along the beach. Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; 
Gulfport. Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Nutt. (Inula mariana L.) Mary 
hiiid (iolden Aster. 

Dry open pine forests. Lauderdale Co.; Jones Co.; Clin- 
ton (T. P. Bailey); McHenry; Bay St. Louis (Allison); 
Claiborne Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy). Aueust-Septembei 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 273 

Chrysopsis villosa (I'nrsh.) Nutt. (Amelliis villosus Pursh.) 
Western Golden Aster. 

Dry soil. Assigned to IMississippi by ^lohr; late summer. 

CHONDROPHORxi Raf. 

Chondrophora niidata (Miehx.) Britt. (Bigelovia nudata DC.) 
Rayless Cj olden Rod. 

Low pine barrens near the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). August-October. 

Allison Herb 

BRINTONIA Greene. 

Brintonia discoidea Greene, (Solidago discoidea Torr. & Gray.) 
Borders of woods and copses. Ocean Springs (Tracy) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). September. 

Allison Herb 

SdLIDAGO L. Golden Rod. 

Solidago petiolaris Ait. (S. data Ell.) Bushy Golden Rod. 
Dry open woods (Mohr.). October. 

Solidago caesia L. Blue-Stem Golden Rod. 

Damp rich open woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Tiafayette Co. ; 
Ripley; New Albany; Hinds Co.; Warren Co.; Amite Co. 
(Allison). Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Solidago caesia paniculata Gray. (S. gracilis Poir.) South- 
ern Blue-Stem Golden Rod. 

Dry cherty hills. Northeast Mississippi (i\Iohr;. 

Solidago bicolor L. Silver Rod. 

Dry open woods. Simpson Co. (Hilg Ms.) -lulx Se[itciii- 
ber. 

Solidago sempervirens L. Evergreen Golden Rod. 

Littoral, bordering brackish marshes along the coast. Cat 
Island. Summer and fall. 

Solidago pnbemla Nutt. Downy Golden Rod. 
Dry soil (Small). Summer and falL 



274 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Solidago erecta Pursh. (S. speciosa angustata Torr. & Gray). 
Erect Golden Rod. 

Dry upland rocky ridges. Jasper Co. (Hilg Ms.) July- 
August. 

Solidago odora Ait. (S. retrorsa Michx.) Sweet-scented Gol- 
den Rod. 

Light dry soil in open woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Amory ; 
Houston ; Jackson ; Lost Gap ; Bay St. Louis (Allison) . July- 
August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb.. 

Solidago tortifolia Ell. (S. retrorsa Pursh.) Twisted-leaf 
Golden Rod. 

Dry sandy or clay soil. Scooba. Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Solidago fistulosa Mill. (S. villosa Ell). Villous Golden Rod. 
Borders of woods and swamps. Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
Fall. 

Allison Herb 

Solidago arguta Ait. (S. Muhlenbergii Torr. & Gray). Short 
Serrate Golden Rod. 

Northeast counties, in grassy open ground (Hilg. Ms.). 

Summer. 

Solidago serotina Ait. (S. gigantia Willd.) Late Golden Rod. 
Damp edges of woods. Lafayette Co. September-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Solidago mgosa Mill. (S. altissima Ait.) High Golden Rod. 
Damp low ground, bordering thickets and fields. Tish- 
omingo Co.; Oxford; Jackson; Amite Co. (Allison); Biloxi 
( Tracy). September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Solidago Bootii Hook. Boot's Golden Rod. 

Dry open woods. Horn Lake ; Mississippi City (Tracy) ; 
Bay St. Louis (Allison). August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 275 

Solidago brachyphylla Chapm. (S. Bootii brachyphylla Gray). 
Dry open pine barrens (Mohr). October. 

Solidago Canadensis L. (S. altissima L.) Common Golden Rod, 
A common weed along ditches and fence rows of old fields 
throughout the state. Fulton ; Oxford ; Winona ; Hinds Co. ; 
Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Amite Co. (Allison). September- Oc- 
tober. 

Allison Herb 

Solidago Canadensis scabriuscula Porter. 
Smith Co. (llilg-. Ms.) October. 

Solidago nemoralis Ait. 

Dry open woods and fields. Lafayette Co. September-Oc- 
tober. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHRYSOMA Nutt. 

Chrysoma pauciflosculosa Greene. (Solidago pauciflosculosa 
Michx.) New-fiowered Golden Rod. 

Loose sands along the coast. Littoral belt (]\Iohr) ; Coast- 
al Islands (Tracy). October. 

EUTHAI\nA Nutt. 

Euthamia Caroliniana (L.) Greene. (Solidago tenuifolia 
Pursh ) . Narrow-leaf Euthamia. 

Lawrence Co. (Hilg. Rep.) ; Biloxi (Tracy) ; McHenry ; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison). September-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. (Solidago lanciolata L) 
Lance-leaf Euthamia. 

Damp soil, borders of fields and open places. Picayune; 
Rankin. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Euthamia leptocephala (Torr. & Gray) Greene. (Solidago lep- 
tocephala T. &. G.) Western Bushy Golden Rod. 

Moist sandy soil. Biloxi (Tracy). August-October. 



276 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

SERICOCARPUS Ness. White-Topped Aster 

Sericocaxpus linifolius (L.) B. S. P. (S. solidagiueus Nees.) 
Narrow-leaf White-topped Aster 

Low damp open woods. Philadelphia. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. (S. conyzoides Nees.) 
Large-tiowered White-topped Aster. 

Dry rocky, gravelly or sandy soil. Canton. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Sericocarpus bifoliatus (Walt.) Porter. (S. tortifolius Nees.) 
Mouse Ears. 

Dry sandy pine barrens. Bay St. Louis (Allison,. July- 
August. 

Allison Herb 

BOLTONIA L'Her. 

Boltonia diffusa Ell. Spreading Boltonia. 

Damp rich soil of low pastures and fields. Simpson Co. 
(Hilg. Rep.); Biloxi (Tracy); Jones Co.; Hancock Co.; (Alli- 
son; Jackson; Oxford. August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

ASTER L. 

Aster paludosus Ait. Swamp Aster. 

Nearly always found on dry sandy uplands ; rarely seen on 
low wet soil. Lafayette Co. ; Hinds Co. ; Simpson Co. (Hilg. 
Rep.) ; Tippah Co.; Tishomingo Co.; Winona; Jackson; Clai- 
borne Co.; Jones Co. (Allison); Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Aster sagittifolius dissitiflorus Burgess. Arrow-leaf Aster. 
Dry soil in open woods (Small.) Summer and fall. 

Aster concolor L. Southern Silky Aster. 

Dry sandy soil of open woods and fields. Tishomingo Co. ; 
Lafayette Co.: Hinds Co.; Jasper Co. (Hilg. Rep.); Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). October-November. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 27 7 

Aster adnatus Nntt. Small Leaf Aster. 

Upland pine barrens. Covington Co. ; Jones Co. (Allison) ; 
Smith Co. ; Marion Co. October-November. 

Geol. Snrv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Aster Novae-Angliae L. NeAv England Aster. 

Rich damp soil, edges of thickets and fields. Jackson. 
October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aster patens Ait. (A. amplexicaulis Michx.) Spreading Aster. 
Dry soil of open woods and old fields. Lafayette Co. ; 
Smith Co. (Hilg. Eep.) ; Tishomingo Co.; Ripley; Jackson; 
Claiborne Co.; Jones Co. (Allison). Augiist-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Aster patens teniiicaulis ]\Iohr. Slender spreading Aster. 

Dry open soil. This variety is perhaps the prevailing form 

throughout the state. 

Aster patentissimus Lindl. 

Dry soil (Small)). Summer and fall. 

Aster camptosorus Small. Walking-leaf Aster. 

Probably found once before flowering on Pontotoc Ridge 
near Xew Albany. Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aster azureus Lindl. Sky-blue Aster. 

Dry open woods. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Lafayette Co.; 
Claiborne Co. ; Jackson. October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aster undulatus L. AYavy-leaf Aster. 

Dry open woods and thickets. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; 
Clinton (Dr. T. P. Bailey) ; Jackson. September-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aster cordifolius L. Heart-leaf Aster. 

Dry open woods and thickets. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.; 
Beauvoir (Tracy). September-October. 

Aster purpuratus Nees. (A. virgatus Ell.) Wand-like Aster. 



278 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Shady banks of pine barrens streams. Jackson (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey). Fall. 

Aster laevis L Smooth Aster. 

Dry open upland woods. Jasper Co. (Hilg. Ms.) 

Aster ericoides L. Heath-like Aster. 

Light dry soil, borders of fields and open woods (Mohr), 
October-November. 

Aster ericoides pilosus (Willd.) Porter 
with the lafst (Small). Fall. 

Aster proteus Burgess. 

Dry soil near the coast (Small) Summer and fall. 

Aster multiflorus Ait. Many-flowered Aster. 
Dry fields and prairies (Mohr). October. 

Aster dumosus L. Bushy Aster. 

Dry shaded sandy soil. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Jackson. 
Fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Aster Jaterifiorus (L.) Britton. (A. difiusus Ait.) Diffuse 
Aster. 

:\loist banks. Smith Co. (Hilg. Ms.) ; Amite Co. (Allison). 
August-October. 

Allison Herb 

Aster Tradescanti L. Tradescant's Aster. 

Open fields and swamps. Clinton (Dr. T. P. Bailey). Sum- 
mer and fall. 

Aster salicifolius Lam. (A. carneus Torr. & Gray). Willow- 
leaf Aster. 

Damp grassy banks of streams; prairies (Hilg. Ms.) ; Jas- 
per Co. (Hilg. Ms.). October. 

Aster paniculatus Lam. Panicled Aster. 
Low open ground. Oxford. Fall. 

Aster temiifolms L. (A. fiexuosus Nutt.) Salt Marsh Aster. 
Brackish and salt marshes along the coast. Biloxi (Tracy) ; 
Cat Island. September-October. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 279 

Aster exilis Ell. (A. divarieatus Torr. & Gray). Seaside As- 
ter. 

Borders of ditches and marshes along the coast. Reported 
at Clinton by Dr. T. P. Bailey. Possible error in diagnosis). 
October 

ERIGERON L. Fleabane. 

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (Aster annuus L.) Sweet Scabi- 
ous. 

Open fiields and waste places throughout the state. Sum- 
mer. 

Erigeron ramosus (AValt.) B. S. P. (E. strigosus Muhl.). 
Daisy Fleabane. 

Dry open old fields throughout the state. Oxford; Hinds 
Co.; Yalobusha (Hilg. Ms.) ; Amite Co.; Bay St. Louis (Alli- 
son). ]May-July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Erig-eron pulchellus Michx. (E. bellidifolius Muhl.) Lilac 
Fleabane. 

Open woods and edges of fields. Oxford ; Tishomingo Co. 
(Allison) ; Jackson April-May. 

Allison Herb. 

Erigeron Philadelphicus L. Philadelphia Daisy Fleabane. 

;Moist rich borders of fields and woods. Oxford; Jackson. 
April-May. 

Erigeron repens A. Gray. Creeping Fleabane. 

Sandy coasts. Coastal Islands (Tracy). Spring and Sum- 
mer. 

Erigerori vemus (L). Torr. & Gray. (E. nudicaule Michx.) 
Vernal Fleabane. 

Low^ wet pine barrens near the coast. Gulfport; Landon; 
Picayune; Bay St. Louis (Allison). March-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

LEPTILON Raf. 

Leptilon Canadense (L.) Britton. (Erigeron Canadensis L.) 
Canada Fleabane. 



280 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

A common weed in old fields throughout the state. Ox- 
ford: Hinds Co.; Coastal Islands (Tracy) ; Bay St. Louis (Al- 
lison). July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Leptilon divaricatum (Michx.) Raf. (Erigeron divaricatus 
.Michx.) 

Pastures and waste places. Carroll Co. (Hilg. Ms.). Sum- 
mer. 

Leptilon linifolmm (Willd.) Small. (Erigeron linifolius willd.) 
Narrow-leaf Fleabane. 

Old fields and waste places. Cat Island (Tracy). Spring 
and fall. 

lONACTIS Greene. 

lonactis linariifolius (L.) Greene. (Aster linariifolius L.) 
Pine Starwort. 

Dry sandy open woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. ; 
Claiborne Co.; Jones Co. (Allison); Biloxi (Tracy). Octo- 
ber-November. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

BACCHARIS L. 

Baccharh halimifolia ]\Iichx. Groundsel Tree. 

Fresh and salt marshes along the coast. Cat Island. -Octo- 
ber. 

PLUCHEA Cass. 

Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. Erigeron camphoratum L.) 
Salt .Marsh Fleabane. 

Littoral zone, in brackish and salt marshes. BiloXi (Tra- 
cy) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Horn Island. October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Pluchea petioata Cass. (P, foetida DC.) Strong-scented Plu- 
chori. 
Low damp streams and ditch banks (Mohr). Fall 

Pluchea foetida (L.) B. S. P. (P. bifrons DC). Viscid Plu- 
chea. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 281 

Hoi'dors of pine barrens ponds and ditches. Smith Co. 
(Ililg. Ms.); Biloxi and Coastal Islands (Tracy); Bay St. 
Louis (Allison). Auttiist-October. 

Allison Herb. 

ANTENNARIA Gaert. 

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards. (Gnaphalium plan- 
taginifolinni L) Plantain-leaf Cudweed. 

Dry thin soil in open woods. Tishomingo Co. (Allison) ; 
Oxford; Morton. March-April. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

GNAPHALIU]\I L. Everlasting. 

Gnaphalium Helleri Britton. Heller's Everlasting. 

Open woods and copses. Jones Co. and Amite Co. (Alli- 
son) September. 

Allison Herb. 

Gnaphalium obtusifclium L. (G.. .polycephalum _Michx.) 
Sweet Everlasting. 

Dry soil of old fields and borders of woods. Oxford ; Hinds 
Co.; Jasper Co. (Hilg. Ms.). July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Gnaphalium purpureum L Purple Cudweed. 

Open old fields and waste lands throughout the state. 
April-June. 

Gnaphalium. spathulatum Lam. 

Open waste grounds and pastures. Bay St. Louis (^ Alli- 
son). Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Gnaphalium undulatum Walt. 

Sandy pine lands (Small). Spring "and summer. 

POLYMNIA L. 

Polymnia uvedalia L Bear Foot. 

Low rich shaded borders of Avoods and copses. Itawamba 
Co.; Tippah Co.; Union Co.; Pontotoc Co.; Chickasaw Co.; 
Hinds Co. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb, 



282 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

silf:^~tttm l. 

Silphium laciniatuin L. (F. guminiferuin Ell.) Compass 
Plant. 

Dry open prairies. Ti:; elo ; Scooba ; seen once near Ox- 
ford. Summer. 

Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq. Prairie Dock. 

Grassy openings and prairies. Tishomingo Co. ; Tupelo ; 
Noxubee Co. August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silphium perfoliatum L. Cup Plant. 

Eich moist soil on stream banks. Collins. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silphium scaberrimum Ell. Scabrous Rosin Weed. 

Prairies and edges of fields. Oxford ; Lost Gap ; Jackson. 
July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silphium asperimum Hook. (S. radula Nutt.) Rough Rosin 
Weed. 

Dry open pastures and borders of fields. Lumberton. 
Summer. 

Silphium integrifolium Michx. Entire-leaved Rosin Weed. 

Open prairies and upland fields. Houston; West Point; 
Durant. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silphium asteriscus L. Common Rosin Weed. 

Dry open sandy or rocky soil. Meridian ; Batesville. Sum- 
mer and fall 

Silphium glabrum Eggert. Smooth Rosin Weed. 

Dry open pastures and fields. Rocky Ford ; West Point ; 
Heidelberg. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Silphium gracile A. Gray. Slender Rosin Weed. 

Prairies and dry open fields and pastures. Amory. Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 283 

HELIOPSIS. Pers. 

Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) B. S. P. (H. laevis Pers.) Sun- 
flower-like Oxeye. 

Dry open woods. Yazoo City. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb- 

ECLIPTA L. 

Ecliptaalba (L.) Hassk. (Verbesina alba L.) White-flower- 
ed Eclipta 

In moist soil along streams and in waste places. Oxford ; 
Jackson; Claiborne Co. June-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

MELANTHERA Rohr. 

Melanthera deltoidea Miehx. 

Rich moist sandy soil. Waynesboro ; Chunky ; Rosetta. Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

SPILANTHES Jacq. 

Spilanthes repens (Walt.) Miehx. (Anthemis repens Walt.) 
Creeping Spilanthes. 

Low damp pastures and fields. Vicksburg August-Oc- 
tober. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

RUDBECKIA L. 

Rudbeckia triloba L. Three-lobed Cone Flower. 

Thickets and fence rows, often in prairies. Jackson ; 
Batesville. August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Rudbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed Susan. 

Dry upland pastures and old fifields. Oxford; Pontotoc; 
West Point; Jackson; Bay St. Louis (Allison.) Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rudbeckia longipes ]\Ioore. Hispid Cone FloAver. 

Fields and open woods. Vicksburg. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 



n4 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Rudbeckia laciniata L. : . _ic Cone Flower. 

Rich moist prairie .sol s. Jackson; Tupelo; Scooba. Au- 
gust-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Rudbeckia amplexicaulis Vahl. (Dracopis amplexicaulis Cass.) 
Clasping-leaved Cone Flower. 
Low damp fields and pastures. Grenada ; Tehula ; Vieks- 
burg; Eodney (Dr. Perviance) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison^ ; com- 
mon along Illinois Central tracks from Jackson to Durant. Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. (R. discolor Ell.) Golden Cone Flower. 
Dry open woods. Vicksburg. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Rudbeckia subtomentosus Pursh. Sweet Cone Flower. 

Prairies ; open ground along streams. Horn Lake. July- 
September 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BRAUNERIA Neck. 

Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britton. (Echinacea purpurea Mo- 
ench.) Purple Hedge Hog Flower. 

Dry open woods and prairies. Oxford; Jackson; Brook- 
haven. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

TETRAGONOTHECA L. 

Tetragonotheca helianthoides L. False Sunflower. 

Dry sandy soil of southern pine regions. Bay St. Louis 
(Allison.) 

Allison Herb. 

BORRICHIA Adans. 

Borricliia frutescens (L.) DC. (Buphthalmum frutescens L.) 
Sea-Oxeye. 

Salt marshes along the coast. Biloxi; Gulfport; Bay St. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 2 85 

Louis (Allison) ; marshy borders of Cat Island. August-Octo- 
ber. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HELIANTHUS L. Sunflower. 

Helianthus angustifolius L. Narrow-leaf Sunflower. 

Very common in edges of lowland fields and waste lands. 
Ripley ; Lafayette Co. ; Panola Co. ; Carroll Co. ; Grenada ; Wi- 
nona ; Hinds Co. ; Warren Co. ; Jones Co. ; Tylertown ; Ocean 
Springs (Tracy). September-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Helianthus heterophyllus Nutt. Naked-stemmed Sunflower. 

Low damp pine barrens. Biloxi; Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
October-November. 

. Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Helianthus laetiflorus Pers. Showy Sunflower. 

On dry prairies and pine barrens. Jackson; Jones Co. 
(Allison). August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Helianthus divaricatus L. (H. truncatus Sehwein.) Woodland 
Sunflower. 

Dry open woods. Oxford; Lost Gap. July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Helianthus giganteus L. Giant Sun-flower. 

Along ditches and creek banks in low open ground. Jack- 
son; Bogue Chitto bottoms near Brookhaven. Forest; Gre- 
nada Co. September-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Helianthus hirsutus stenophyllus T. & G. 

Dry open woods in the southern pine region (]\Iohr.) Au- 
gust-September. 

Helianthus strumosus L. Pale -leaved Wood Sunflower. 

Dry open woods. Jackson; Brookhaven. July-August. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Helianthus glaucus Small. Southern Smooth Sunflower. 
Dry sandy open woods. Oxford August-September. 



286 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

VERBESINA L. 

Verbesina occidentalis (L.) Walt. (Siegesbeckia oceidentalis 
L.) Wayside Crownbeard. 

Low damp borders of fields and thickets. Southern coun- 
ties (Hilg. Eep.). September, 

Verbesina Virginica L. AVhite Crownbeard 

Rich soil in open woods. Bay St. Louis (Allison). Sept. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb, 

ACTINOMERIS Nutt. 

Actinomeris squarrosa Nutt. (Verbesina alternifolia (L.) 
Benth.j Crownbeard. 

Rich moist soil, borders of fields. Oxford ; Ripley ; West 
Point; Simpson Co. (Hilg. Ms.) Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

Actinomeris paniculata (Walt.) Small. 

Rich damp shaded soil edges of woods and creek banks. 
Tishominga Co. ; Claiborne Co. ; Amite Co. (Allison) Septem- 
ber. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

COREOPSIS L. 

Coreopsis gladiata Walt. Smooth Coreopsis. 

Low damp pine barrens (Mohr.) September-October. 

Coreopsis angustifolia Ait. Narrow-leaf Coreopsis. 

Low flat pine barrens. Bay St. Louis (Allison). Septem- 
ber-October. 

Allison Herb. 

Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Garden Coreopsis. 

Old fields and waste places; escaped from cultivation. Ox- 
ford, ^lay. 

Coreopsis Drummondii (D. Don) Torr & Gray; (Calliopsis 
Drummondii D. Don). Drummond's Coreopsis. 

Grassy glades on shore of Mississippi Sound. Pascagoula 
(^lohr.) Summer. 

Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg. Great-flowered Coreopsis. 



Mo. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 2 87 

Dry light soil. Oxford; Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey). June- 
August. 

Coreopsis lanceolata L. Lance-leaf Coreopsis. 

Dry light soil in open woods and old fields. Oxford; Gre- 
nada; Jackson; Brookhaven; Landon; Bay St. Louis (Allison). 
May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Coreopsis crassifolia Ait. (C. lanceolata villosa Michx.) Hairy 
Coreopsis. 

Dry open pine forests.- Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey). June. 

Coreopsis Leavenworthii Torr. & Gray. 

Moist pine lands. Lucedale ; Hurley. Summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Coreopsis pubescens Ell. Star Tickseed. 

Moist rich soil, banks of streams. Brookhaven. July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Coreopsis auriculata L. Meadow Coreopsis. 

]\Ioist open woods. Tishomingo Co.; Jackson; Jones Co. 
(Allison). May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Coreopsis major Walt. (C. senifolia Michx.) Wood Coreopsis. 
Dry open sandy upland woods. Tishomingo Co. ; Benton 
Co. ; Newton Co. ; Ripley ; Hattiesburg. July- August. 

Coreopsis cardaminefolia (DC.) T. & G. (Calliopsis cardamine- 
foliaDC.) Cross-leaved Tickseed. 

Moist open soil. Biloxi. May-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Coreopsis tripteris L. Tall Coreopsis. 

Damp rich soil in edges of woods and thickets. Oxford ; 
Itawaitaiba Co.; Ripley; Clinton (Dr. T. P. Bailey) ; Lost Gap. 
July-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

BIDENS L. Beggar Ticks. Bur Marigold. 
Bidens frondosa L. Stick Tight. Common Beggar Tick. 



288 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

Low rich soils ; edges of fields and thickets. Oxford ; Car- 
roll Co.; Starkville (Tracy) ; Jackson (Dr. T. P. Bailey). Sum- 
mer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Eidens bipeimata L. Spanish Needles. 

Low rich soil ; borders of fields and waste places. Lafay- 
ette Co. ; Carroll Co. September-October. 

Bidens aristosa mutica . (A.Gray) Weigand. 
Swamps (Small). Summer and fall. 

Bidens coronata (L.) Fisch. (Coreopsis aurea Ait.) Golden 
Flowered Coreopsis. 

Moist rich soil in pine regions. Jackson (Dr. T. P. 
Bailey) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Gulfport. September-Octo- 
ber. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britt. (Coreopsis triehosperma 
Michx.) 

Swamps and wet meadows. Oxford ; Picayune. August- 
October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ACTINOSPERMUM Ell. 

Actinospermum unifiomm (Nutt). Barnh. (Baldwinia uni- 
flora Nutt.) One floAvered Baldwinia. 

Open damp pine barrens near the coast. McHenry ; Pica- 
yune; Landon; Gulfport; Biloxi (Tracy); Ocean Springs; 
Woodland. August. 

MARSHALLIA Schreb 

Marshallia graminifolia (Walt.) Small; (Marshallia angusti- 
folia Pursh). Narrow-leaf Marshallia. 

Low wet pine barrens. Picayune ; Jackson Co. August- 
September. 

Marshallia trinervia (Walt.) Porter; (Marshallia latifolia 
I'ursh.j Broad Leaf Marshallia. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 289 

Light sandy soil, edges of ponds and ditches. luka; 
Leakesville. Spring and summer. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

HELENIUM L. 

Helenium tenuifolium Nutt. Bitter Weed. 

A troublesome weed in pastures and waste places. Ox- 
ford; Hinds Co.; Rankin Co.; Grenada Co.; Jefferson Co.; Bay 
St. Louis (Allison) ; Coastal Islands (Tracy). Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Helenium nudifiorum Xutt. (Leptopoda brachypoda T. & G.) 
Low Sneeze AVeed. 

Dry open soil, pastures and Avaste places. Oxford; Gre- 
nada; Bay St. Louis (Allison.) June- July. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Helenium autumnale L. Common Sneeze AA^eed. 

Damp pastures and borders of ditches. Jackson ; Rankin 
Co.; Jones Co. (Allison) ; Tippah Co. ^ August-September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Helenium vernale AValt. (Leptopoda puberula McBride) Ver- 
nal Sneeze AVeed. 

Low banks along pine barren streams (Mohr.) Spring. 

Helenium brevifolium (Xutt.) Gray, (Leptopoda brevifolia 
Xutt.) Short Leaf Plelenium. 

AVet sandy soil, edges of woods and thickets (Mohr.) 
Spring. 

ACHLLLEA L. Yarrow. 

Achillea millefolium L. Common Yarrow. 

Open waste ground throughout the state. Summer and 
fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

ANTHEAIIS L. 

Anthemis cotula L. (Alaruta cotula DC.) Alay AVeed. Dog 
Fennel. 



290 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

An offensive weed in waste lands around dwellings. La- 
fayette Co. ; Hinds Co. April-June. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM L. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. (Leueanthemum vulgare 
Lam.j Oxeye Daisy. 

Pastures and open waste lands. Not very common any- 
where. Oxford. May- July. 

ERECHTITES Raf. 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.j Raf. (Senecio hieraeifolius L.) 
Fire Weed. 

In woodlands and thickets, common after fires. Bay St. 
Louis (Allison) ; Coastal Islands (Tracj'.) Summer. 

Allison Herb. 

SENECIO L. Groundsel.. Ragwort. 

Senecio obovatus Nutt. (S. aureus obovatus Torr. & Gray) 
Ovate Leaf Ragwort. 

Dry open upland woods. Tishomingo Co. (Allison). ^Nlay. 

Allison Herb. 

Senecio lobatus Pers. (S. lyratus ]Michx.) Butter Weed. Yel- 
low top. 
Low rich freshly cleared fields throughout the State. Tish- 
omingo Co. ; Lafayette Co. : Hinds Co. April-May. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 
Senecio Smallii Britt. (S. aureus angustifolius Britt.) Small's 
Groundsel. 

Dr3' pastures, old fields and open woods (Small.) Spring. 

MESADENIA Raf. Indian Plantain. 

Mesadenia atriplicifolia (L.j Raf. (Cacalia atriplicifolia L.) 
Pale Indian Plantain. 

Rich moist woodlands and thickets. Ackerman; Hatchie 
Hills of Tippah Co. ; Fulton. June-July. 

Geol. Surv. Plerb. 



No. 17] FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 291 

Mesadenia ovata (Walt.) Raf. (Cacalia ovata Walt.) Ovate 
Leaf Indian Plantain. 

Low rich soil of thickets and open woods; prairies (Hilg. 
Ms.) Bay St. Louis (Allison) ; Booneville ; Tylertown; Mead- 
ville; Picayune. Summer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. Allison Herb. 

Mesdenia lanceolata (Nutt.) Raf. (Cacalia lanceolata Nutt.) 
Lance Leaf Indian Plantain. 

Wet banks of pine barrens streams. Lyman. August- 
September. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Mesadenia tuberosa (Nutt.) Britt. (Cacalia tuberosa Nutt.) 
Tuberous Indian Plantain. Indian Potato. 
Low prairies and damp meadows. Tishomingo Co. ; Lafay- 
ette Co.; Carroll Co. (Hilg. Rep.) Summer. 

ARCTIUM L. 

Arctium minus Schk. (Lappa minor DC.) Smalller Burdock. 
Open waste lands. Oxford. July-August. 

CARDUUS L. Thistle. 

Caruus Fpinosissimus AValt. (Cnieus horridulus Pursh.) Yel- 
low TI:i-tle. 

Lov moist r ndy soil. Gulfport (Dr. T. P. Bailey). April. 

Cardurs Virgin, nus L. (Cnicus Virginianus Pursh.) Virginia 
Thistle. 

Dry open upland woods. Jackson; Gulfport; Oxford; 
Amite Co. (Allison) ; Bay St. Louis (Allison). August-October. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Carduus altissimus L. (Cnicus altissimus Willd.) Tall Thistle. 
]\Ioist rich soil in fields and thickets. Amite Co. (Alli- 
son). September-October. 

Allison Herb. 

Carduus discolor (^luhl.) Nutt. (Cnicus altissimus discolor. 
A.Gray}. Field Thistle. 



2 92 MISSISSIPPI STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY [Bull. 

In fields, pastures and along roadsides. Warren Co. Sum- 
mer and fall. 

Geol. Surv. Herb. 

Carduus glaber Nutt. (Cnicus glaber Ell.) Smooth Thistle. 
Dry pine woods. Littoral region (Mohr.) ; Coastal Islands 
(Tracy.) Spring and summer. 

TKYRSANTHEMA Neck. 

Thyrsanthema semisflosculare (Walt.) Kuntze. (Chaptalia to- 
mentosa Vent.) Vernal Chaptalia. 

Low wet pine barrens. Wayne, Co. ; Hattiesburg ; Wiggins ; 
Picayune; Back Bay at Biloxi; Bay St. Louis (Allison). Feb- 
ruary-March. 

Geol. Surv. Herb.. Allison Herb. 



ADDENDA: 

The following should be added to their respective groups in the List: 
Pellaea atropurpurea (L) Link. Cliff Brake. 

Crevice plant in rock ledges of Tishomingo County. 
Trichomanes radicans Sw. Alabama Bristle Fern. 

Dripping sandstone rocks of Cave Spring, near Mingo Post 0»'fice, Tishomingo 

County. 
Andropogon ternarius Michx, 

Dry open grounds. Oxl'ord. Sept. -Oct 
Sorgastrum nutans (L.) Nash. 

Dry open soil. Oxford. Late autumn and fall. 
Paspalum longepedunculatum Le Conte. 

Sandy soil. Horn island. 
A. & M. College Herb. 
Aristida palustris (Chapm.) Vasey. 

Wet sandy swamps. Pascagoula (Tracy); Oxford Late summer and fall. 
Spartina stricta maritima (Walt.) Scribn. Salt marsh Grass. 

Salt marshes; Coast and Coastal Islands (Tracy.) Summer and fall. 
Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Link. 

Oxford. July. 
Eragrostis nitida (Ell.) Chapm. Glossy Eragrostis. 

Light sandy soil. Starkville; Columbus 

A. & M. College Herb. 

Festuca sciurea Nutt. 

Dry soil. Starkville (Tracy). 
Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Dwarf Barley. 

Waste places; roadside (Mohr.) Summer. 
Cyperus ovularis (Michx) Torr. Round-Headed Cyperus. 

Damp open ground. Yalobusha Co. (Hilg. Ms.); Coast (Tracy). Summer 
Stenophyllus stenophyllus (Ell.) Britton. Tufted Stenophyllus. 

Dry sandy soil, near the Coast. Autumn. 
Nymphaea advena Soland. Yellow Pond Lily. 

Slow-moving streams, and ponds. Lampton; Tylertown; Brookihaven^ Summer. 

Ranunculus muricatus L. Prickly-Fruited Buttercup. 

Along ditches and creeks. Jackson. April - May. 
Chamaecrista littoralis Pollard. Seaside Chamaecrista. 

Sandjy soil near the coast ( Small). 
Kuhnistera gracilis (Nutt.) Kuntze. Slender Prairie Clover. 

Grassy open pine barrens. Biloxi (Tracy) ; McHenry. Fall. 
Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC. 

Sandy soil. Coastal Islands (Tracy), 

Hibiscus lasiocarpus Cav. 

Swampy soil. Greenwood. Summer and fall. 
Houstonia rotundifolia Michx. Round-Leaf Houstonia. 

Dry sandy soil. Hattiesburg; Bay St. Louis (Allison); Coastal Islands (Tracy); 
Biloxi. March - April. 
Adopogon dandelion (L.) Kuntze. Dwarf Dandelion. 

Dry open sandy soil. Tishomingo Co. ((Allison); Oxford; Jackson. Spring. 

Helianthus mollis Lam. 

Dry soil. Grenada. 
Actinospermura angustifolium (Persh.) T. & G. 

Sandy coasts; Coastal Islands (Tracy). Summer. 



NAMES OF PLACES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT 



Ackerman Choctaw Co. 

Amory Monroe Co. 

Artesia Lowndes Co. 

Avondale 

Batesville Panola Co. 

Bayou Graveline 

Bay St. Louis Hancock Co. 

Belzoni Humphre>s Co. 

Biloxi Harrison Co. 

Black Hawk Carroll Co. 

Booneville Prentiss Co. 

Brookhaven Lincoln Co. 

Canton Madison Co. 

CarroUton Carroll Co. 

Char! ji .on Tallahatchie Co. 

Chun.iey Newton Co. 

Clinton Hinds Co. 

Collins Covington Co. 

Columbia Marion Co. 

Columbus Lauderdale Co. 

Crystal Springs Copiah Co. 

Decatur Newton Co. 

Dekalb Kemper Co. 

Durant Holmes Co. 

Eastport Tishomingo Co. 

Enbterprise Clarke Co. 

Fentress Choctaw Co. 

Fernwood Pike Co. 

Fontanbleau Jackson Co. 

Fulton Itawamba Co. 

Gloster Amite Co. 

Grenada ^ Grenada Co. 

Greenwooii Leflore Co. 

Gulfport Harrison Co. 

Hatchie Hills Prentiss Co. 

Hattiesbur,? Forrest Co. 

Haynes Bluff Warren Co. 

Heidelberg Jasper Co. 

Holcomb Grenada Co. 

Holly Springs Marshall Co. 

Horn Lake DeSoto Co. 

Houston Chickasaw Co. 

Howell Spring Lafayette Co. 

Hurley Jackson Co. 

luka Tishomingo Co. 

Jackson Hinds Co. 

Lake Scott Co. 

Landon Harrison Co. 

Lauderdale Springs Lafayette Co. 

Laurel '. Jones Co. 

Leakesville Greene Co. 

Liberty Amite Co. 

Lost Gap Lauderdale Co. 

Luceda'e George Co. 

T — v^rto'^. Lamar Co. 

Lyman Harrison Co. 

Macon Noxubee Co. 

Madison Madison Co. 

Mart'n (now called 

Patterson) Claiborne Co. 



McHenry Harrison Co. 

Meadville Franklin Co. 

Mendenhall Simi>son Co. 

Michigan City Benton Co. 

Mississippi City Harrison Co. 

Monticella Lawrence Co. 

Montrose Jasper Co. 

Morton Scott Co. 

Moss Point Jackson Co. 

Natchez Adams Co. 

Newton Newton Co. 

New Albany Unnion Co. 

New Augusta Perry Co. 

Nugent Harrison Co. 

Ocean Springs Jackson Co. 

Okolona Chickasaw Co. 

Oxford Lafayette Co. 

Pascagoula Jackson Co. 

Pass Christian Harrison Co. 

Philadelphia Neshoba Co. 

Picayune Pearl River Co. 

Pontotoc Pontotoc Co. 

Poplarville Pearl River Co. 

Port Gibson Claiborne Co. 

Potts Camp Marshall Co. 

Prentiss Jefferson Davis Co. 

Ripley TiT)pah Co. 

Roberts Newton Co. 

Rockport (Old) Holmes Co. 

Rodney Jefferson Co. 

Rosetta Wilkinson Co. 

Roxev ; Franklin Co. 

Saltillo Lee Co. 

Satartia , Yazoo Co. 

Scooba Kemper Co. 

Sessums Oktibbeha Co. 

Shubuta Clarke Co. 

Silvarena Smith Co. 

Star Rankin Co. 

Starkville Oktibbeha Co. 

State Line Wayne Co. 

Taylor Lafayette Co. 

Taylorsville Smith Co. 

Tchula Holmes Co. 

Tishomingo City Tishomingo Co. 

Toomsuba Lauderdale Co. 

Tunica Coahoma Co. 

Tupelo Lee Co. 

ylertown Walthall Co. 

Utica Hinds Co. 

Vaiden Carroll Co. 

Vicksburg Warren Co. 

Vosburg Jasper Co. 

Warrenton Warren Co. 

Waveland Hancock Co. 

West Point Clay Co. 

Wheeler Prentiss Co. 

Wiggins Harrison Co. 

Winona Montgomery Co. 

Woodland Chickasaw Co. 

Woodville : Wilkinson Co. 



MACKENZIE 



York Botanical ^a '?«'],, Vi'.mI^m 



3 5185 00287 7312 



102 li 



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FROM H3NY LIBRARY 



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